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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Thermal fatigue fracture Crevice corrosion In recent years, there has been a growing application of reactive metals in the processing equipment in chemical, petroleum, and power industries. Commercially pure titanium with desirable engineering properties as well as excellent corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Stresses generated by phase transformations promote decohesion of metal particles and graphite, and gross metal wastage (dusting) occurs. Fig. 6 Reactivity of sever air representative alloys reacted in Co. Once this mechanism was initiated, reaction rates probably accelerated when carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... chemistry of weld metal/base materials Constant Extension Rate Testing (CERT) Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Analyses (EPR) Examinations Visual/Photography Preliminary visual examination of the pipe disclosed that the crack (near SF 265) was adjacent to what appeared...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (high volatility of alkalis). Molten metals are less reactive toward refractories but are not inert. The solid refractory material, S, has already been defined as a multiphase material having a texture with intricate surface properties, most often used under a thermal gradient and usually containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., namely oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in engineering design: noble metal coatings and sacrificial metal coatings. Noble metal coatings are used as barrier coatings over a more reactive metal. Galvanic corrosion of the substrate can occur at pores, damage sites, and edges in the noble metal coating. Sacrificial metal coatings provide cathodic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as sodium sulfite or hydrazine) is very effective in some aqueous systems. Metallic Coatings Two types of metallic coatings are used in engineering design: noble metal coatings and sacrificial metal coatings. Noble metal coatings are used as barrier coatings over a more reactive metal. Galvanic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The failure mode of through-wall cracking of a butt weld in a 5083-O aluminum alloy piping system in an ethylene plant was identified as mercury liquid metal embrittlement. As a result of this finding, 226 of the more than 400 butt welds in the system were ultrasonically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in temperature. The material was a steel in the normalized condition with a 0.35% C content. It appears probable that deficient lubrication of the gland resulted in overheating of the rod due to friction. The presence of a sprayed-metal coating was probably an additional factor in promoting failure, as it would...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the higher its reactivity ( Ref 21 , 24 ). Formation of localized electrochemical cells, which accelerate corrosion. When two metals in contact having different electrode potentials or activities are in a corrosive environment, the metal that has lower electrode potential (or higher activity) experiences...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...), that would not be considered particularly corrosive. These include the more reactive metals such as aluminum, titanium, zirconium, and chromium when used as elements to alloy stainless steels. This aspect of fretting is considered in the section “Environmental Effects” in this article. When dissimilar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and ferrite. Boron steels typically contain between 0.0005 and 0.0030 wt.% boron in the absence of high levels of other alloying elements. Unlike other elements, the relative amount of boron beyond a requisite level will not provide additional increases in hardenability. Due to the reactivity of boron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Identification of alloys using quantitative chemical analysis is an essential step during a metallurgical failure analysis process. There are several methods available for quantitative analysis of metal alloys, and the analyst should carefully approach selection of the method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). For oxidizing metals, one of the immediate consequences of the process in normal atmospheric conditions is the production of oxide wear debris; thus, the inaccurate term fretting corrosion was previously considered, although the actual term fretting wear is more consistently used now. The movement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the parts are subjected to metal rubbing, as well as to the abrasive and corrosive nature of a slurry. Other, more common corrosive wear problems occur in equipment such as automobile brakes and engines ( Ref 3 ), fillings used in dental applications, and tapes rubbed by recording heads in electronic video...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to detrimental part performance. Due to its size and value, a comprehensive on-site nondestructive microstructural analysis of the titanium cylinder weldment was performed. Titanium is highly reactive with interstitial elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Each interstitial element affects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and the fuel core of spent fuel are presented in the next four sections. Oxide Films on Aluminum Aluminum is one of the most thermodynamically reactive metals. Aluminum owes its excellent corrosion resistance in most environments to the protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the classification of sliding bearings and describes the major groups of soft metal bearing materials: babbitts, copper-lead bearing alloys, bronze, and aluminum alloys. It provides a discussion on the methods for fluid-film lubrication in bearings...