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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray spectroscopy is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. While “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems are used less frequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 X-ray elemental composition maps made with the electron microprobe of a copper penetration crack in a failed locomotive axle. 270× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 X-ray elemental dot maps for copper and tin taken at three typical areas exhibiting penetration of the bearing elements. The three regions shown in the specimen current images (left) were quantitatively analyzed for copper and tin; results are given under the concentration maps. All 320× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 X-ray elemental composition maps made with the electron microprobe using a region of copper penetration shown in Fig. 16 and 17 . All 270× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 (a) Energy-dispersive and (b) wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectra of a multicomponent glass. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 46 Energy-dispersive spectroscopy x-ray spectrum from a shiny metallic particle in a secondary crack, as shown in Fig. 42 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of the components of a wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Schematic of a complete energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer used in electron-probe x-ray microanalysis. Various pulse processing functions and the multichannel analyzer are shown. FET, field effect transistor More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction stress versus applied stress for varying average roughness ( R a ). (a) Samples with R a of 1, 3, and 6 μm. (b) Samples with R a of 1, 40, and 56 μm. (Source: Ref 26 ) More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Effect of surface R a on XRD stress measurements. (a) X-ray penetration depth is greater than R a . (b) X-ray penetration depth is less than R a . Source: Ref 26 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 X-ray diffraction stress versus applied stress on (a) as-received and (b) electropolished surfaces More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 14 X-ray diffraction residual-stress map showing the introduction of compressive surface residual stresses in the parent material and the reduction, but not elimination, of tensile residual stresses in the weld metal on the unmasked side from shot peening a nickel alloy weldment. Source More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 28 X-ray diffraction residual stress versus heat treatment temperature for various iron alloys. Specimens were held at temperature for 1 h and furnace cooled. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectrum of stainless steel surface More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution spectrum of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy compositional depth profile of stainless steel More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution carbon spectrum of stainless steel surface More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 11 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution iron spectrum of stainless steel surface More