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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... nozzles. Surface examination showed ratchet marks at the edges of the fracture surface, indicating that loading was of the rotating bending type. Electron fractography using the two-stage replica method revealed striation marks characteristic of fatigue fracture. The striations indicated that the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the propeller, is made of low alloy steel. The other shaft, part of a clutch mechanism that regulates the transmission of power from the engine to the gears, is made of carbon steel. Fracture surface examination of the gear shaft revealed circumferential ratchet marks with the presence of inward progressive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the naked eye. New castings with reduced porosity also failed the durability tests. The fatigue fracture surfaces of additional casting fragments were very rough and contained multiple ratchet marks along the inner fillet. These observations indicated the fatigue process was heavily influenced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The ratchet marks around the corrugated perimeter of the shaft, coupled with the smoothness and flatness of the fracture surface, suggested a fatigue type of fracture, although no striations or tire tracks could be seen because of the corrosion of the fracture surface. The helical shape of the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... along the sharp radius indicated by the arrow, at × 0.25 On fractographic examination, fracture showed a distinct (bright) crescent shaped zone with fracture lines emanating from several zones of `ratchet' marks in the outer periphery of crescent envelope ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Crescent shaped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 1 General features of fatigue fractures Fig. 2 Close-up view of ratchet marks between distinct surface origin sites in an 18.4 cm (7.25 in.) low-alloy steel shaft that failed in rotating-bending fatigue. Ratchet marks (at arrows) are roughly radial steps formed where fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination. Fig. 2 Close-up view of ratchet marks between distinct surface origin sites in a low-alloy steel 18.4 cm (7.25 in.) shaft that failed in rotating bending fatigue. Ratchet marks (at arrows) are roughly radial steps formed where fatigue cracks initially propagating on different planes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... producing progression marks or beach marks, Fig. 4 [ 7 ]. A number of ratchet marks were also observed, Fig. 5 . These are indicative of multiple secondary origins of cracks and also show that high stress concentrations were associated with the scoring. The edges of the ratchet marks were tapered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., resulting in severe work roll damage as well as machine downtime and increased maintenance costs. work rolls fracture surface-initiated spalling cast steel beach marks shear ledges (chevron rays) ratchet marks heat checks SEM fractography strain rate maximum shear stress H13 (chromium hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with progressive propagation under fatigue mechanisms on almost its entire surface (95%). One of the first features associated with fatigue initiation is the presence of ratchet marks. Ratchet marks are defined as short cracks that originate on planes of maximum shear stress. They usually form initiation sites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Ratchet marks where origins join General wastage, roughening, pitting, or trenching Stress-corrosion and hydrogen damage may create multiple cracks that appear brittle Gouging, abrasion, polishing, or erosion Galling or scoring in direction of motion Roughened areas with compacted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ). Fig. 7 Separation surface and adjacent concentric groove on interior surface of club face plate at apparent crack origin. (Color figure online) The fracture surface in the golf club face plate was examined in the SEM, revealing multiple ratchet marks and several distinct thumbnails emanating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0091092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... Figure 2 shows a magnified view of the fractured hub that caused the wheel to break off the principal drive shaft of the overhead crane. The concentric circles revolving around the final overload, along with the ratchet marks around the outer circumference pointing toward the overload, are typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on the spindle showed that it had failed in fatigue. Beach marks and ratchet marks were visible ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 3 Fracture surface on the spindle and the cracked attachment weld. Fig. 4 Fracture surface on the spindle, showing beach marks and ratchet marks. The collar and spindle were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... . These observations confirmed the visual inspections and also showed that 70% of the fracture surface was by fatigue and 30% by overload fracture. The spacing between the beach marks was fine, indicating a low cyclic stress. Ratchet marks and striations were also observed by SEM, Fig. 6 and 7 , respectively...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cyclic loading Propagation from center of radius of curvature Curvature may reverse on cylindrical sections as crack propagates (see Fig. 40 ) Ratchet marks More likely in cyclic loading Indicates initiation site(s) (see Fig. 40 , 41 ) Adjacent surface and or fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The side wall failures contained transverse cracking on both the hot side of the tube and in the membrane area ( Figure 4 ). The fractures were oxidized, crescent-shaped, flat with ratchet marks and propagated from the outside inward ( Figure 5 ). The metallographic cross sections revealed straight...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of each of the mating fracture surfaces on segments A1 and A2 (from tube row 4) revealed ratchet marks, which are steps in the fracture surface formed when two cracks progressing at slightly different elevations ultimately meet. The presence of ratchet marks confirmed that multiple cracks had initiated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... near the fracture. (c) Plan view of fracture surface showing symmetrical rotating-bending fatigue fracture with ratchet marks and final overload section in the center Fig. 23 Pushrod that fractured in bending fatigue after being fabricated by inertia welding. (a) Configuration and dimensions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... marks is observable around the circumference of the fracture surface. The ratchet marks indicate the combination of crack planes Fig. 30 Fractured axle journal within bearing. The end cap was removed from the failed side. A noticeable amount of red rust was present on the interior of the end...