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racking practices

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that long-term weathering effects can be estimated in a shorter, more practical time period. There are two basic approaches in accelerated weathering testing: one is to simulate the natural aging as realistically as possible in an effort to predict actual service life; the other is to provide reproducible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Examination of the racks revealed the presence of a small shear lip at the lower end of the vertical crack. A shear lip is indicative of final fracture. Closer inspection of the vertical crack showed that it was almost entirely at a 45° angle to the direction perpendicular to the plane of the sheet. Figure 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and storage racks. These locations provide the environment for localized corrosion to occur because of the stagnant areas and differential oxygen cells that can be set up. Pitting corrosion of the aluminum-clad fuel and target materials in wet basin storage is the primary mechanism of corrosion in the U.S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (20,000 gal) tanks. The process involved acidification of an aromatic organic sodium salt with sulfuric acid at 80°C (175°F) to pH 2.0. Lead was an undesirable material for this application, because it creeps under its own weight at 80°C (175°F). A rack of corrosion test coupons was installed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was concluded to be the reason of the fatigue failure. Rack plating or barrels with fixed button contacts at many points instead of dangler-type contacts were recommended to avoid hard spots. Cadmium plating Cylinders Electric arcs Pneumatic devices Spring steel Surface treatment related failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... capacity is only slightly increased because of the thrust loading. Fig. 2 Sections of a (a) spur gear, (b) spur rack, (c) helical gear, and (d) helical rack. Source: Ref 1 Figure 2 also shows both a spur rack and pinion and a helical rack and pinion. The term rack is used to describe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... because a gear is designed with a specific function in mind. The question is, Will this gear perform the function that was intended by the designer? Types of Gears Spur Gears Spur gears ( Fig. 1a ) are used to transmit motion between parallel shafts or between a shaft and a rack. The teeth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with in a service failure because other factors almost invariably intervene and bring about some modification—and, while this is inconvenient in some respects, it has the advantage of showing what actually occurs in practice. As the design of engineering plant has progressed there has been an enormous increase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... as the location of the spot welds, including the fracture. Fig. 2 Optical photographs of the sample containing the spot welds after removal from the tank. (a) Outside, showing racking around the aft spot weld. (b) Inside, showing upper portion of the internal bracket. Pertinent Specifications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... When problems do occur, they are usually attributed to: Poor part design Existing material-related problems Difficult engineering requirements Incorrect heating or heat treatment practice One of the most common causes of difficulties in heat treatment is the uneven expansion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Portions of the fractures were selected for examination by SEM. Figures 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 show the features found on the crack at the fillet weld toe of sample 9. The features indicate high-cycle fatigue racking from multiple origins along the weld toe that progressed through a majority of the plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... metallurgical quality, improper or abusive mill-usage practices, and abnormal mill operating conditions can singly, or in combination, lead to service failures ( Ref 1 ). Although in actual practice, the majority of such failures usually can be attributed to the aforesaid mill-related factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and the foundry engineers. Foundry personnel are an invaluable source of information on what can be produced in cast form, both in terms of geometry and materials selection. This input should be sought early in the design process to incorporate the suggestions where practical. This can also have a dramatic impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and metallurgical failures, environment-assisted cracking failures, and other damage mechanisms that induce cracking failures. Finally, the article provides information on inspection practices. chemical-processing plants environment-assisted cracking fabrication flaws failure analysis piping power plants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of hydrogen damage in all the major commercial alloy systems. It covers the broader topic of hydrogen damage, which can be quite complex and technical in nature. The article focuses on failure analysis where hydrogen embrittlement of a steel component is suspected. It provides practical advice for the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are often limited, if nobody was injured. Therefore, the third section gives practical advice for the failure analysis practitioner or for someone who is contemplating procurement of a cost-effective failure analysis of commodity-grade components suspected of hydrogen embrittlement. Because of the wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or no consequence. More rigorous applications are likely to require springs with defect-free surfaces. Such surfaces can be obtained by conditioning of billets or even by grinding of the wire or strip stock from which the springs are formed. These practices, however, significantly increase cost and decrease...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9