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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... A section of the flange containing one through-flange crack was examined using various methods. Results indicated that the cracks had initiated from intergranular quench cracks caused by the use of water as the quenching medium. Brittle propagation of the cracks was promoted by high residual stresses acting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... inspection, 50x/90x/400x SEM micrographs, and metallographic analysis) supports the conclusion that the cracking problem in these components was identified as quench cracks due to their brittle, intergranular nature and the characteristic temper oxide on the fracture surfaces. Although the steel met...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... but before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that intergranular cracking observed in this alloy was caused during heat treating as the thread root served as an effective stress concentration and induced quench cracking. It was found that fracture in the overload region occurred by a ductile void growth and coalescence process. Premature failure of the threaded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... It was concluded that the numerous hardening cracks were caused by abrupt quenching from over-heating temperature and by local stress concentrations due to indentations of the tool caused during alignment. Cracking (fracturing) Flame hardening Quenching C45 Heat treating-related failures Operation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 76 mm (3 in.) type 304 stainless steel tube that was used as a heat shield and water nozzle support in a hydrogen gas plant quench pot failed in a brittle manner. Visual examination of a sample from the failed tube showed that one lip of the section was eroded from service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A heat-treated, cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel bolt broke through the head-to-shank fillet while being handled during assembly. Fractographic and metallographic examination of the bolt traced the cause of failure to quench cracking, which occurred when the part was water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The U-0.8wt%Ti alloy is often used in weapon applications where high strength and fairly good ductility are necessary. Components are immersion quenched in water from the gamma phase to produce a martensitic structure that is amenable to aging. Undesirable conditions occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... show conclusively that large changes in strength and exfoliation characteristics of 7075 forgings can be induced by changes in temperature or time of thermal treatment. With regard to the effect of quenching rate on exfoliation characteristics, a cold-water quench below 25 deg C (75 deg F) would appear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) and 11 MPa (1600 psi). The valve stem was reported to have been solution heat treated at 1040 +/-14 deg C (1900 +/-25 deg F) for 30 min and either air quenched or oil quenched to room temperature. The stem was then reportedly aged at 550 to 595 deg C (1025 to 1100 deg F) for four hours. Investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the desired curvature, preheated, then solution treated, water quenched, and then aged for 8 to 10 h. Analysis (visual inspection, slow-bend testing, 65x macrographic analysis, macroetching, spectrographic analysis, hardness tests, microhardness tests, tension tests, and microscopic examination) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... had the quench structure of low-carbon steel, the structure of the flattened area consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a small amount of pearlite (quench troostite) and ferrite. Therefore the sleeve was overheated and probably quenched directly from case. To prevent damage, it would have been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that occur during heat treating and describes the metallurgical sources of stress and distortion during heating and cooling. The article summarizes the effect of materials and the quench-process design on distortion and cracking and details the effect of cooling characteristics on residual stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and experienced excessive distortion because they were left in the furnace for extended and varying periods with the temperature “turned down a couple hundred degrees.” Carbides Decarburization Quenching and tempering Carbon steel Heat treating-related failures This case study actually involves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The drive shaft in a marine propulsion system broke, stranding a large vessel along the Canadian seacoast. The shaft was made from quenched and tempered low-alloy steel. Fractographic investigation revealed that the shaft failed under low rotating-bending variable stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... a fracture transition temperature in excess of 1000C. The sequence of events leading to failure was detailed. The main recommendation was to quench and temper existing couplings and to use a lower carbon quenched and tempered steel for new couplings. Couplings Drilling rigs 4142 UNS G41420 Brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract A bolt manufacturer observed that products made from certain shipments of steel 41 Cr4 wire were prone to the formation of quench cracks in their rolled threads. The affected wire was tested and found to be highly sensitive to overheating because of the metallurgical method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Recommendations included using quenched-and-tempered steel instead of patented and cold-drawn steel or using a more expensive chromium-vanadium alloy steel instead of plain carbon steel; the chromium-vanadium steel would also need to be quenched and tempered. Automotive components Distortion Springs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A thick-walled tube that was weld fabricated for use as a pressure vessel exhibited cracks. Similar cracking was apparent at the weld toes after postweld stress relief or quench-and-temper heat treatment. The cracks were not detectable by nondestructive examination after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the original inspection. Optical and electron microscopy of the broken bolts revealed topographies and the presence of black oxide consistent with quench cracking. The two bolts failed during installation due to the presence of pre-existing quench cracks. Recommendations to prevent future failures include...