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quenched and tempered low-alloy steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The drive shaft in a marine propulsion system broke, stranding a large vessel along the Canadian seacoast. The shaft was made from quenched and tempered low-alloy steel. Fractographic investigation revealed that the shaft failed under low rotating-bending variable stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... indicated that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before the 315 °C (600 °F) snap temper. X-ray diffraction studies of material from the fractured dome showed a very low level of retained austenite (about 1%). Specimens from the dome that were heat treated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... appearance. Shrinkage porosity was found to be the primary cause of failure. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a low-alloy carburizing steel. The microstructure was compatible with a steel which is cast, carburized, quenched, and tempered. The structure was generally satisfactory, except...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... flange of low-carbon low-alloy steel that was welded to an AISI 1025 steel tube, and the improved design included placing the welded joint of the flange farther away from the flange fillet. Investigation (visual inspection and chemical analysis) supported the conclusion that the failures in the flanges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract A roadarm for a tracked vehicle failed during preproduction vehicle testing. The arm was a weldment of two cored low-alloy steel sand castings specified to ASTM A 148, grade 120–95. A maximum carbon content of 0.32% was specified. The welding procedure called for degreasing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... , 2002 , p 641 – 649 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540 Optical microscopy on polished-and-etched specimens cut from the ring revealed the microstructure to be very fine-grain tempered martensite, typical of quenched-and-tempered low-alloy steel. Hardness testing of the broken ring yielded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A hollow, splined alloy steel aircraft shaft (machined from an AMS 6415 steel forging – approximately the same composition as 4340 steel – then quenched and tempered to a hardness of 44.5 to 49 HRC) cracked in service after more than 10,000 h of flight time. The inner surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of tempered martensite, typical of a quenched and tempered low-alloy steel. This microstructure compared favorably to the microstructure of bolts from inventory and in the field. The material was clean with no major inclusions present. Fig. 7 Representative micrograph of microstructure showing tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Mechanical properties of quenched and tempered low-alloy steel (0.30–0.50 wt% C) as determined by Patton. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 17 Mechanical properties of quenched and tempered low-alloy steel (0.30–0.45 wt% C) as determined by Janitsky and Baeyertz. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 18 Mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... resistance. The material is appropriate for this service and material. The base metal exhibited a normal microstructure for a quenched-and-tempered low-alloy steel. The core and case hardness values are in the normal range for a gear. The gear is part of a coal pulverizer, built in 1978. The bull gear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... problematic. For example, some steel grades must be water quenched when the alloy composition is on the low side of the specification limit. Conversely, if the alloy composition is on the high side, cracking is more common. Steel grades that exhibit this problem include: 1040, 1045, 1536, 1541, 1137, 1141...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. 350×. (c...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stresses to an acceptable level and to improve the toughness of the steel. Untempered tools and dies nearly always fail prematurely in service. Second, the as-quenched hardness may be low due to testing on a decarburized surface. If a spot is ground on an as-quenched surface, cracking may result. Double...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...-bolts fractured in fatigue because the bolt material had poor hardenability relative to the diam of the bolts. The bolt material was changed from 1045 steel to 1527 steel, a warm-finished low-alloy steel. The diameter of the bolts was reduced to 27.2 mm and the threads were rolled rather than cut...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Rockwell hardness on a quenched tool before deciding how to temper it. When they do this, they interrupt the recommended handling practices; and in some instances, tools crack while being handled or tested for hardness. The recommended procedure calls for an immediate low-temperature tempering which does...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... piece of mining equipment. The vehicle was fabricated from ASTM A 572 Grade 50 High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steel, ranging in thickness from 38 to 152 mm. Fatigue fracture was found to have initiated in a weld HAZ in 127 mm thick plate. The plate met the grade specifications and calculation revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... couplings but the use of a lower carbon quenched and tempered steel for new couplings would not only give a very high toughness, resistance to stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion, but would also be very much more easily welded than the present low alloy steel. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... low magnification was surprising. The employees were asked whether this batch of material had stayed in the temper furnace longer than usual, and the answer was, “No.” As time passed, the plant experienced frequent problems in meeting the as-tempered hardness specification. Finally, a site visit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., and low alloy cost. A chip harvester made from this composition was tested in field with older composition knives. It was found that the new knives outperformed the older knives. The key to the development was interpreted to be careful study of a number of failed knives with different problems used...