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quench-sensitive alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and ductility are developed in Hastelloy N when the alloy is solution heat treated at 1120 deg C (2050 deg F) and is either quenched in water or rapidly cooled in air. An alternative, but less suitable, material for the pot was type 347 (stabilized grade) stainless steel. After welding, the 347 should be stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... increases. Poor correlation between austenitic grain size and quench cracking Quench sensitivity Cracking and distortion increase as carbon equivalent (C eq ) is increased. Alloy is crack sensitive if C eq > 0.52, where: C eq = C + Mn 5 + Mo 5 + Cr 10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the desired curvature, preheated, then solution treated, water quenched, and then aged for 8 to 10 h. Analysis (visual inspection, slow-bend testing, 65x macrographic analysis, macroetching, spectrographic analysis, hardness tests, microhardness tests, tension tests, and microscopic examination) supported...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Multiple intergranular cracks • Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... steels (types AISI 304L and AISI 316L). An appropriate heat-treatment at a temperature high enough to dissolve the carbides (usually from 1037 °C to 1150 °C) and for a regulated time (to avoid an excessive grain growth), followed by quenching. Localized heat — treatment of the area immediately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating. Figure 1 shows the surface of quenched and tempered A2 tool steel (59 HRC) cut...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the material but more prevalent in the area of large grains. Annealing a portion of the clamp by heating at 980 °C (1800 °F) and water quenching removed the intergranular network of carbides. The clamp fractured by SCC because the work metal was sensitized. Sensitization occurred during long-term...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... triple points• Reaction scales or internal precipitation• Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis• Loading direction may show failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... but before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on a rail head due to frictional heat. This specimen was taken adjacent to a spalled area. Specimen etched with picral Fig. 9 Light micrographs of the surface (plated with nickel) of quenched and tempered A2 tool steel cut with an abrasive wheel without using coolant showing (a) a reaustenitized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... 980 °C (1800 °F), high enough to dissolve Cr-rich precipitates. Alloy 430 has limited hardenability when rapidly cooled from above its lower critical transformation temperature of 845 °C (1550 °F). Quenching from temperatures above 845 °C (1550 °F) can induce a martensitic transformation ( Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The U-0.8wt%Ti alloy is often used in weapon applications where high strength and fairly good ductility are necessary. Components are immersion quenched in water from the gamma phase to produce a martensitic structure that is amenable to aging. Undesirable conditions occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... design corrections that reduce the possibility of quench-cracking ( Ref 4 ). If it is unavoidable that quench crack-sensitive designs be used, then two possible design modifications should be considered. The first is to consider a two-piece assembly that is mechanically joined or shrunk-fitted together...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...., quick furnace quench Trigger anneal: 927 to 943°C (1700 to 1730°F) for 20 to 35 min., argon quench Sub-zero cool: −73°C (−100°F) for ≥ 1 h Temper: 449 to 460°C (840 to 860°F) for 3 h, rapid quench This heat treatment was designed to provide the best resistance against stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... also can have an adverse effect on subsequent fabrication and heat treatment. In heat treatable alloys, variations in composition can produce unexpected responses to heat treatments, which result in hard or soft spots, quench cracks, or other flaws. Excessive segregation that leads to significant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., are used to distinguish between ductile and brittle cracking mechanisms in the grain boundaries. This distinction, in some cases, may be helpful for appropriate evaluation of cause and corrective action. In addition, another complex mechanism is quench cracking, which almost always occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the structure is particularly sensitive to grinding. Fig. 6 Nonuniform, low quenching temperatures can cause bald-head fractures in carbon-tool steel dies. Tapered sections, such as in chisels, are subject to thumbnail cracks in quenching. The cracks have a semicircular contour–hence their name...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Mechanical properties of quenched and tempered low-alloy steel (0.30–0.50 wt% C) as determined by Patton. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 17 Mechanical properties of quenched and tempered low-alloy steel (0.30–0.45 wt% C) as determined by Janitsky and Baeyertz. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 18 Mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... complex mechanism is quench cracking, which almost always occurs intergranularly. Quench cracking is heavily influenced by volumetric expansion during transformation hardening and the temperature extremes of quenching but can be aggravated by some of the mechanisms mentioned previously as well as grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Pipe dimensions were 273 mm OD and 8 mm wall thickness. Fig. 1 Photograph of bent pipe section Fig. 2 Pipe bending process with high frequency inductive heating and subsequent water quench Fig. 3 Photograph of pipe section in as received condition, as affected by surface...