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quench distortion

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... during heat treating and describes the metallurgical sources of stress and distortion during heating and cooling. The article summarizes the effect of materials and the quench-process design on distortion and cracking and details the effect of cooling characteristics on residual stress and distortion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Recommendations included using quenched-and-tempered steel instead of patented and cold-drawn steel or using a more expensive chromium-vanadium alloy steel instead of plain carbon steel; the chromium-vanadium steel would also need to be quenched and tempered. Automotive components Distortion Springs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and contraction that occurs within a part because of thermal gradients during heating and cooling. In addition to thermal stresses, steels are subjected to transformation stresses when they are hardened to martensite during quenching. Some specific problem areas associated with distortion and cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and a hardness of only 28 HRC. Fig. 9 Two hardened-and-tempered 1070 steel hold-down clamps. The clamp at top was acceptable. The clamp at bottom was slack quenched because of faulty loading practice (stacking), and it failed by distortion (flattening) because of the resultant mixed microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., coarse pearlite, and tempered martensite and a hardness of only 28 HRC. Fig. 9 Two hardened-and-tempered 1070 steel hold-down clamps. Clamp (a) was acceptable. Clamp (b) was slack quenched because of faulty loading practice (stacking), and it failed by distortion (flattening) because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and experienced excessive distortion because they were left in the furnace for extended and varying periods with the temperature “turned down a couple hundred degrees.” Carbides Decarburization Quenching and tempering Carbon steel Heat treating-related failures This case study actually involves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was examined using various methods. Results indicated that the cracks had initiated from intergranular quench cracks caused by the use of water as the quenching medium. Brittle propagation of the cracks was promoted by high residual stresses acting in conjunction with applied loads. Repair welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... stainless steel cladding 3 mm overlay Cone plate separating combustion chamber from quench chamber 1-in. thick, 1¼ Cr–½ Mo steel (ASTM SA-387 Grade 11, Class 2) Quench ring Incoloy 825, nickel–iron–chromium alloy Dip tube ¼-in. thick tube, Incoloy 825, nickel–iron–chromium alloy Draft tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overaustenitizing overheating quench cracking seams tool failure tool steel unconsolidated interiors FAILURE MECHANISMS in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes are discussed in this article. This article is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... treatment distortion must be controlled, and surface chemistries must not be altered. Because of the careful balance that must be maintained in heat treatment, control of the heat treatment process is one of the most critical steps in producing successful tools and dies. Heat treating of tool and die steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 50× (fracture surface) • Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads • Dull, fibrous fracture • Shear lips • Little or no distortion • Flat fracture • Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy • Rays or chevrons point to origin • Flat progressive zone with beach marks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and/or brittle cracking. Fracture mode identification chart Table 1 Fracture mode identification chart Method Instantaneous failure mode (a) Progressive fracture mode Ductile overload Brittle overload Fatigue Creep Visual, 1 to 50× (fracture surface) • Necking or distortion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0092155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and the adjacent splined coupling sleeve. Specifications included that the gear and coupling be made from 4140 steel bar oil quenched and tempered to a hardness of 265 to 290 HB (equivalent to 27 to 31 HRC) and that the finish-machined parts be single-stage gas nitrided to produce a total case depth of 0.5 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... investigation and corrective action. Fatigue failures in shafts, such as bending fatigue, torsional fatigue, contact fatigue, and axial fatigue, are reviewed. The article provides information on the brittle fracture, ductile fracture, distortion, and corrosion of shafts. Abrasive wear and adhesive wear of metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of distortion and corrosion on shafts. Finally, it discusses the types of stress raisers and the influence of changes in shaft diameter. axial fatigue bending fatigue brittle fracture connecting rods contact fatigue corrosion distortion ductile fracture piston rods shafts torsional fatigue wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overload Brittle overload Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual, 1 to 50× (fracture surface) Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads Dull, fibrous fracture Shear lips Little or no distortion Flat fracture Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual (fracture surface): Mag: 1 to 50× Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads Dull, fibrous fracture Shear lips Little or no distortion Flat fracture Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy Rays or chevrons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... used to measure the microstrain. The plate was sectioned into progressively smaller pieces until a 10 × 20 mm piece of plate containing each strain gauge was left. One cut, which removed part of the bilge keel, caused noticeable change in the distortion as the reaction stresses changed. In addition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., materials selection, and use problems: for example, underfill, part distortion, and poor dimensional control; tool overload and breakage; excessive tool wear; high initial investment due to equipment cost; poor material use and high scrap loss The movement of metal during these processes, whether...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-strength quenched and tempered steel is significantly smoother overall than is the overload fracture of a pearlitic steel or annealed copper. Also, fracture surface roughness increases as a crack propagates, so the roughest area on the fracture surface is usually the last to fail ( Fig. 4 ) ( Ref 4...