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quench cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... A section of the flange containing one through-flange crack was examined using various methods. Results indicated that the cracks had initiated from intergranular quench cracks caused by the use of water as the quenching medium. Brittle propagation of the cracks was promoted by high residual stresses acting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... inspection, 50x/90x/400x SEM micrographs, and metallographic analysis) supports the conclusion that the cracking problem in these components was identified as quench cracks due to their brittle, intergranular nature and the characteristic temper oxide on the fracture surfaces. Although the steel met...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that intergranular cracking observed in this alloy was caused during heat treating as the thread root served as an effective stress concentration and induced quench cracking. It was found that fracture in the overload region occurred by a ductile void growth and coalescence process. Premature failure of the threaded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... but before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 2 Quench cracks formed in oil-quenched tool steel die. Cracks originated from the sharp corners of the keyway and from holes that were located too close to the surface. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 17 Microstructure of quench crack. The crack follows the former austenite grain boundaries. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Alloy steel seamless tubing that failed because of quench cracks. (a) Cross section of tube showing extensive cracking revealed by dye-penetrant inspection. (b) SEM micrograph showing intergranular fracture at a crack origin. 90x. (c) SEM micrograph illustrating the brittle mode of failure More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 14 Quench crack promoted by the presence of a deep, sharp stamp mark in a die made of AISI S7 tool steel. This die had not been tempered, or was ineffectively tempered, after hardening. Original magnification: 2× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the original inspection. Optical and electron microscopy of the broken bolts revealed topographies and the presence of black oxide consistent with quench cracking. The two bolts failed during installation due to the presence of pre-existing quench cracks. Recommendations to prevent future failures include...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract A bolt manufacturer observed that products made from certain shipments of steel 41 Cr4 wire were prone to the formation of quench cracks in their rolled threads. The affected wire was tested and found to be highly sensitive to overheating because of the metallurgical method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A heat-treated, cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel bolt broke through the head-to-shank fillet while being handled during assembly. Fractographic and metallographic examination of the bolt traced the cause of failure to quench cracking, which occurred when the part was water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the shaft cross section revealed that the crack was approximately 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) deep and oriented in a radial direction. Furthermore, no stringer-type nonmetallic inclusions were observed in the vicinity of the flaw, which did not display the intergranular characteristics of a quench crack. The defect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... examinations determined that the fractures stemmed from electric arc damage. Intergranular quench cracks in the transformed untempered martensite on the surface of the spring provided crack initiations that propagated during operation causing fatigue fracture. torsion springs fracture electrical arcing...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 4 Micrographs of cracks after heat treatment caused either by sharp radii or related machining problems. (a) 4140 steel as-quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack at area of dimensional change. 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 100×. (b) 4142H More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overaustenitizing overheating quench cracking seams tool failure tool steel unconsolidated interiors FAILURE MECHANISMS in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes are discussed in this article. This article is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used...
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 8 Micrograph showing cracking that emanated from the surface toward the center of the piece (typical of quench cracking). Nital etch. 250×. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... occurred as a result of an oxide seam in the original material rather than from oxide from heat treating. Nondestructive testing prior to machining and heat treatment was recommended. Cracking (fracturing) Quenching (cooling) Resulfurized steels 4150 UNS G41500 (Other, general, or unspecified...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that occur during heat treating and describes the metallurgical sources of stress and distortion during heating and cooling. The article summarizes the effect of materials and the quench-process design on distortion and cracking and details the effect of cooling characteristics on residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... While this work is underway, the analyst continues macroscopic examination of the fracture features by opening tight cracks (when present). Because quench cracking is a very common cause of failures, the fracture surfaces should always be checked for temper color. Scale on a crack wall would indicate...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 13 (a) AISI S5 tool steel hammer head that cracked during heat treatment. The fracture was caused by quench cracking that was promoted by the decarburized surface and deep stamp mark (arrows). Actual size. (b) Macroetched disk cut from the head of the sledgehammer. The heavily decarburized More