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quantitative determination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... used. The choice of appropriate analytical techniques is determined by the specific chemical information required, the condition of the sample, and any limitations imposed by interested parties. This article discusses some of the commonly used quantitative chemical analysis techniques for metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract After a quick-release fitting of an ejection seat broke, an investigation was performed to determine the manner and cause of crack propagation. Most fractography-based investigations aim to characterize only qualitative characteristics, such as the fracture orientation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A masonry type drill bit, designed for impact drilling in rock, fractured after a short time in service. Samples of the failed bit were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, quantitative metallography, and chemical analysis. The composition was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... Microprobe analysis was also performed on the polished samples in an EPMA to quantitatively determine the variation of carbon in the case and core regions, as well as to determine the types of NMI present. The EPMA studies were carried out at 15 kV accelerating voltage and 5 × 10 −8 A probe current...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... would be a function of the specific cycle in the variable-amplitude sequence. Consequently, direct comparison of the fatigue crack growth data for the constant-amplitude and variable-amplitude tests was difficult. Quantitative determination of the fatigue crack growth curves, using a striation counting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Treatment Effects on Bulk Chemical Analysis Quantitative versus Qualitative Bulk Chemical Analysis In Situ and Ex Situ Bulk Chemical Analysis of Metals Often in failure analysis, the fractographic features of a part need to be analyzed at the micron scale in an SEM to determine the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). In most applications for failure analysis, qualitative results are adequate, but the method can determine quantitative elemental compositions to a precision of 0.01 wt% with relative accuracies of ±5%, depending on the specific material, type of x-ray detector used, the method of data analysis employed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to corroborate phase identification. Unetched specimens were also examined to observe nonmetallic inclusions. Automatic quantitative image analysis was carried out on polished and etched microsections to determine the volume percent of alloy carbides dispersed in the tempered martensite. The sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... toughness and flaw size at failure, coupled with quantitative SEM fractography using striation spacing methods, revealed that the cyclic stress amplitudes just prior to failure were much larger than expected, in this particular case. Subsequent improvements in fan design and fabrication have effectively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (VPN)] measurements were concurrently carried out on different phases to corroborate their identity. For determining the microhardness of hard martensite and carbide phases, a 50 g indenting load was applied, while a lower load of 10 g was used for the softer graphite phase. Quantitative image...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to determine its chemical quantitative composition. An area that contained an apparent repair weld was also analyzed using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) under a standardless quantitative (SQ) analysis program. EDS provides semiquantitative elemental analysis of materials under SEM examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of specimens of partially recrystallized 7050 Al alloy ( Ref 48 ) Fig. 19 Quantitative correlation between the ultimate tensile strength and the area percentage of voids on the corresponding fracture surfaces of high-pressure die-cast AM60 magnesium alloy specimens having the same dendrite arm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the compressor impellers. The third-stage impeller had been scrapped. Effects were undertaken to determine the mode of cracking. The second-stage impeller was examined and magnetic particle tested at a local machine shop. The eye, vane tip, and the stress pattern cracks on the outside surface of the backing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... of the device for its intended application and to determine the cause of the failure. The shape of the device and its surface condition were examined and the surface condition was examined further at low magnification with an optical microscope. Fractography was carried out using optical and scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... specification (or functions) and the underlying physical concept and preliminary layout to achieve the intended functions A detailed design stage involving both the qualitative definition of part configuration and the quantitative analysis of design parameters (e.g., dimensions, tolerances, materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and material imperfections, but whether an imperfection caused a failure is critical in the determination of root cause. Manufacturing imperfections are not necessarily defects, and in many (if not all) situations, quantitative analysis should be considered to determine whether an imperfection is actually...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... techniques to gain information about defects and various properties of materials, components, and structures—information that is needed to determine their ability to perform their intended function and prevent failure. As defined by ASTM ( Ref 1 ), “NDT is the development and application of technical methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Schematic showing location of boat specimens on the TMI-2 lower head. As an aid to determining how hot the TMI-2 lower head got, material was obtained from a reactor made by Babcock & Wilcox for Midland, Michigan which was never put into service. ASTM A533 Grade B plate from Lukens Steel was used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... deformation characteristics differ widely. Uses and Limitations in Failure Analysis Bend tests are conducted to determine the ductility or strength of a material. Bend tests for ductility differ fundamentally from other mechanical tests in that most mechanical tests are designed to give a quantitative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (sylvine) 0.1 0.3 … … Na 2 SO 4 (orthorhombic form) … … … 96.6 Na 2 SO 4 (hexagonal form) … … … 2.1 Composition of vinyl gloves used in curing silicone determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Table 3 Composition of vinyl gloves used in curing silicone determined...