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quantitative analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Identification of alloys using quantitative chemical analysis is an essential step during a metallurgical failure analysis process. There are several methods available for quantitative analysis of metal alloys, and the analyst should carefully approach selection of the method used...
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 2 Standardless semi-quantitative SEM/EDS element analysis data and graph of typical corrosion residue present in some of the cracks in the eye of the second-stage impeller. The high sodium content was believed to be the corrosion component for the stress-corrosion cracks. Element More
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 3 Standardless semi-quantitative SEM/EDS element analysis data and graph of a crack fracture surface. Base metal elements revealed that the impeller material was an AISI 4300 alloy steel. Element wt% at.% Silicon 0.27 0.53 Chromium 1.10 1.18 Manganese 0.88 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for failure analysis, qualitative results are adequate, but the method can determine quantitative elemental compositions to a precision of 0.01 wt% with relative accuracies of ±5%, depending on the specific material, type of x-ray detector used, the method of data analysis employed, and, as always, the skill...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... as could be seen from the fractures. At a slightly oxidized spot, chips were taken for an analysis of the wire composition after the oxide layer was removed from the surface as far as possible. Quantitative analysis showed the following (wt.%): Chromium contents was higher while nickel contents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the distinguishing alloying additions are low and the overlapping tensile requirements make hardness values inconclusive. Quantitative versus Qualitative Bulk Chemical Analysis When performing bulk chemical analysis, it is important to discern whether the technique being employed is considered quantitative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... roll quality, viz. characteristics of graphite, carbides, martensite, etc., have been extensively studied through optical microscopy, quantitative image analysis (QIA), and electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). These are discussed in the context of spalling propensity and roll life. Hardness Hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was not sufficient to allow of a quantitative analysis, the deposit in the main was found to consist of iron oxide, the soluble portion giving an indication of the presence of copper. It was concluded that the cracking that occurred at the time of re-welding was due to intergranular penetration by copper present...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), and more recently, of powerful digital image analysis equipment, has led to significant advances in quantitative fractography. Numerous quantitative correlations between the material properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... This result indicates that the black corrosion product was mainly compose of iron with minimal Ni and Cr oxide (FeO), iron sulfide (FeS), and carbonate (FeCO 3 ), in addition to the silicon oxide SiO 2 , which accumulated from the sand grains within the water. Qualitative and quantitative analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Bodnar for their analysis of cracks in Admiralty brass cooling tubes, which are part of a heat exchanger in a turbogenerator that provides electricity to a manufacturing plant. A mixture of non-recirculating city and “spring pit” water flows through bundles of tubes to cool the oil in which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... would be required to grow the crack to failure proportions. In reality, however, the fan had experienced at most approximately 100 start stop cycles. Thus start stop cyclic stresses were ruled out as the major cause of fatigue cracking and a more rigorous analysis, including quantitative fractography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.../asm.hb.v11.a0003544 • Gokhale A.M. , Quantitative Fractography , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 538 – 556 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536 ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A masonry type drill bit, designed for impact drilling in rock, fractured after a short time in service. Samples of the failed bit were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, quantitative metallography, and chemical analysis. The composition was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the inside, cooled in liquid nitrogen, and fractured open to enable analysis of a fracture surface. Standardless semi-quantitative scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) analysis revealed a high sodium content in the corrosion product ( Fig. 2 ). The base metal elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... LEITZ-MM6 model, Leica, GmbH, Wetzla, Germany, microhardness tester to corroborate phase identification. Unetched specimens were also examined to observe nonmetallic inclusions. Automatic quantitative image analysis was carried out on polished and etched microsections to determine the volume percent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was analyzed to determine its chemical quantitative composition. An area that contained an apparent repair weld was also analyzed using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) under a standardless quantitative (SQ) analysis program. EDS provides semiquantitative elemental analysis of materials under SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... tubes in it. The concentration of chromium in the metal-side (dense) layer of the oxide growing on each of these steels was measured and is shown in Table 1 . Twenty oxide particles in the 1979 deposit were selected and, again using the electron microprobe for quantitative analysis, the chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... clearly indicated that the disks were capable of withstanding long cracks without causing catastrophic failures. The quantitative fractography of service cracks, the finite-element stress analysis, and the plastic zone size measurements ahead of the crack tip indicated that the crack-tip stress-intensity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surface in cross section. Fry's reagent. 308×. Chemical Analysis/Identification Material and Weld The base metal was analyzed by quantitative chemical analysis techniques. The chemical composition of the base metal met the requirements for type 430Ti stainless steel. Corrosion or Wear...