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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of failure to make the connection. Use of the adapter which joined with a brass nipple, created an unacceptable dissimilar metal joint. The steel also provided a source for the generation of sparks. Loctite, a hydrocarbon sealant that is highly flammable and explosive in contact with pure oxygen, had been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... alloy formation. Even in the case of steel parts with lower silicon contents the reaction between iron and zinc can continue until the pure zinc layer has been consumed entirely if the work piece is not cooled sufficiently after withdrawal. Coating defects Galvanized steels Hot dip galvanizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... through flange Smeared metal on the inner wall. Etched (CuSO 4 + HCl + H 2 O). 15 × The microstructure shows that the cast material is relatively pure and that all the inclusions are oxidic (essentially chromium oxide). The original microstructure outside the heat affected zone consists of ferrite...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
to the interference-fit hole (arrow B) showing intergranular crack growth and the liquid metal diffusion of almost pure tin with a trace of cadmium at the grain boundaries (arrows C). SEM. 320× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
..., left; Jewelry 6, right) Chemical Analysis The results of chemical composition ( Table 1 ) were compared to ISO 5832 standards of metallic materials for surgical implants ( Table 2 ). Jewelry 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 are made of nonsurgical grade stainless steel, while Jewelry 4 is pure niobium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... direction. A zone of heavily deformed grains at the fracture edge was revealed by longitudinal metallographic examination. The shearing fractures of a commercially pure titanium screw and a cast cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy were discussed for purpose of comparison. Deformation Surcigal implants...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the conclusion that the fracture occurred via brittle overload, which was predominantly intergranular. The amount of bending evidence and the directionality of the core overload fracture features suggest that the applied stresses were not purely axial, as would be anticipated in this application. The level...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... metal caused the crack to propagate toward the outer surface, followed closely by corrosion. The last 0.3 mm (0.012 in.) of metal thickness failed in pure tension, as evidenced by the smooth appearance of the crack surface in this region. Fig. 1 Composite micrograph of a transverse section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the hook, especially if welding had been done without adequate pre-heat. Many failures that pass through our hands are attributable to such small deposits of weld metal which are often made for purely cosmetic reasons and without appropriate welding procedures. It is inherently a dangerous practice...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... are for pure metals, not alloys. Nevertheless, they give a good idea of the conditions required for a metal to form a specific compound. Fig. 9 Stability diagrams for oxides and sulfides of iron, nickel, and chromium as a function of oxygen and sulfur partial pressures. Source: Ref 3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to dislocation motion (grain boundaries or precipitates), high strength, and grain-boundary segregation. Thus, pure metals and single crystals are less susceptible to embrittlement but are not immune. The brittle fracture stress varies with the inverse square root of the average grain diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of almost pure copper on top of the corroded cupronickel alloy. This micrograph reveals that many crystals nucleated and that growth was preferentially into the corroding medium because of voids at the alloy surface where no crystal nucleation was present. Etched micrographs (potassium dichromate) revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Post-service destructive evaluation was performed on two commercially pure zirconium pump impellers. One impeller failed after short service in an aqueous hydrochloric acid environment. Its exposed surfaces are bright and shiny, covered with pockmarks, and peppered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... repairs. This failure mode was the original supposition posed by the manufacturer for the analysis. However, relatively pure coppers such as C11000 are very ductile materials, and the lack of ductility in the initial examinations immediately indicated an embrittlement or environmental effect. Tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... segregation. Thus, pure metals and single crystals are less susceptible to embrittlement but are not immune. The brittle fracture stress varies with the inverse square root of the average grain diameter (Hall-Petch equation). The fracture path is usually intergranular in polycrystalline metals having...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Thermal fatigue fracture Crevice corrosion In recent years, there has been a growing application of reactive metals in the processing equipment in chemical, petroleum, and power industries. Commercially pure titanium with desirable engineering properties as well as excellent corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the oxide layer firstly formed, B 2 O 3 , is liquid and tends to evaporate to BO (G), BO 2 (G), and B 2 O 3 (G) as temperature increases. Under reducing conditions, pure BN may be usable up to 1800 °C (3270 °F). The most valuable characteristic of BN is its resistance to wetting by metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... transgranular features with the woodlike appearance. Various areas of a metallic substance were visible on the fracture; when subjected to energy-disperive spectroscopy (EDS), a definite peak of copper was associated with them. The second fracture face examined was sample A ( Fig. 2 ), which also had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... metal was a construction steel of 60 to 75 kp/sq mm strength. Thick-walled parts of steels of such high strength must be preheated to approximately 200 deg C along the edges prior to welding to minimize the strong heat losses by the cold mass of the part. In the case under investigation this either...