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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract A CrN coated restrike punch was made of WR-95 (similar to H-11), which was fluidized bed nitrided. The coated punch was used on hot Inconel at about 1040 deg C (1900 deg F). However, a water-soluble graphite coolant was used to maintain the punch temperature at 230 deg C (450...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and a non-embrittled material was such that no clear decision of the toughness properties was possible by this approach. The initial results obtained from small punch testing showed good agreement with other reported data and could be related to the FATT. Indeed, this small punch test, combined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to prolonged caustic attack that led to ruptures in areas of high stress. The escaping steam eroded the outer surface of the tube causing heavy loss of metal around the rupture points. boiler tubes stress rupture caustic corrosion carbon steel oxide scale deposits punch marks inductively coupled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... The crack propagated toward the outer surface due to high residual stresses in the swaged metal and was followed closely by corrosion. Stress corrosion as result of a combination of residual stresses plus load stress and corrosion was found to cause the failure. Rotary swaging or swaging in a punch press...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of longitudinal specimens. Delaminations that were formed at inclusion sites during punching of the rivet holes and that were filled with nickel during the plating operation were revealed by microscopic examination of the rivet hole. These delaminations were interpreted to have acted as stress raisers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the failed seat were examined using SEM fractography, tensile and ductility tests, and spectrographic chemical analysis. The test results showed that the steel used did not meet the manufacturer's specifications for ductility (elongation). In addition, the small-diameter punched holes caused a stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., at this stress level, fracture mechanics indicated that the 25 mm (1 in.) starter crack exceeded or was very near the critical crack length for the material. Additional factors not taken into account in the design equations included cold work from a hole punching operation, thread imprinting in bolt holes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “Supplemental Articles,” in this online Volume). Tool and Die Characteristics Steels used for tools and dies differ from most other steels in several aspects. First, they are used in the manufacture of other products by a variety of forming processes (stamping, shearing, punching, rolling, bending...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... closely to the part geometry, the tear went below the surface of the part. This caused the material to separate at the grain boundaries and produced the cracks found in both the as-forged and heat-treated parts. Fig. 3 Possible tearing mechanism during trimming. The punch pulls part of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the cleavage type indicative of a brittle material. The samples received comprised: ( a ) a rivet head which had dropped off, ( b ) a head cut off by means of a sett and ( c ) four rivets which had been punched out of the holes after the external heads had been cut off. Sulphur prints showed that all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... but in the case of the other two nearer the driving end the grooving extended over one half of the pin periphery only, the remaining portion of the surface having been indiscriminately indented with some form of toothed punch as depicted in Fig. 2 , which also shows another view of the broken pin. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , p 389 – 423 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001025 Splice plates used in power transmission line towers are usually galvanized steel angles made of hot-rolled structural steels [ 1 ]. Several holes are punched in both faces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... corrosion cracking may be caused by cold-working e.g. cold-rolling, straightening, edging, punching, cutting, and stamping. Critical residual stresses can also be induced by machining operations using blunt tools or clamped tools that are too long, together with excessive contact pressure 7 . In this case...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Mouginot R. and Maugis D. , Fracture Indentation beneath Flat and Spherical Punches , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 20 , 1985 , p 4354 – 4376 10.1007/BF00559324 13. Lawn B.R. , Partical Cone Crack Formation in a Brittle Material Loaded with a Sliding Spherical Indenter , Proc. R. Soc...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... L6 punch that failed after limited service, because (b) the punch was underaustenitized. Specimen etched with nital Fig. 30 Light micrograph of overaustenitized AISI O1 tool steel containing coarse plate martensite and substantial unstable retained austenite. Specimen etched with nital...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by cutting thin sections (e.g., 0.30 mm thick) from locations of interest, from which were punched discs about 3 mm in diameter. These cuts were made with a high speed, thin (e.g., 0.25 mm thick) abrasive wheel using copious water for cooling. The discs were then electrochemcially thinned ( Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... A photomicrograph of the flow forming machine is shown in Fig. 2 . The preform—a thick walled starting material for flow forming—was fabricated by forging (both upsetting and drawing), piercing with tapered punches, and mandrel forging, followed by hardening and tempering. Fig. 2 Four-axis CNC flow forming...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and at the bottom end of the spring were produced by a dull blanking-and-punching tool. A longitudinal section through a rivet hole is shown in Fig. 4(c) . This micrograph reveals delaminations that were formed at inclusion sites during punching of the rivet holes and that were filled with nickel during...