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punch marks

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to prolonged caustic attack that led to ruptures in areas of high stress. The escaping steam eroded the outer surface of the tube causing heavy loss of metal around the rupture points. boiler tubes stress rupture caustic corrosion carbon steel oxide scale deposits punch marks inductively coupled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... stress bearing thread. Crack extension was the result of marked creep embrittlement and reverse temper embrittlement (RTE). Selected approaches were examined to assess the effects of RTE on the material toughness of selected studs. It was observed that Auger electron microscopy results which indicated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the threaded part shown in Fig. 5 was due to an undercut at the base of the threaded region. Rough machining marks areanother common cause of quench cracking. Figure 6 shows a punch made of AISI S7 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Because of the section size, the punch was oil quenched to 540...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is also visible on the fracture faces shown in (a) Fig. 6 Punch made of AISI S7 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Temper color was observed on the crack walls. Cracking was promoted by and located by the very coarse machining marks. Magnetic particles have been used to emphasize...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Surface hardening, nitriding, carburizing, anodic hard coating Excessive case thickness, microcracks, embrittled material at stress raisers Machining Tool marks, grinding cracks Welding Weld-metal defects, hydrogen-induced cracking, inclusions, improper structure The primary purpose...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., at this stress level, fracture mechanics indicated that the 25 mm (1 in.) starter crack exceeded or was very near the critical crack length for the material. Additional factors not taken into account in the design equations included cold work from a hole punching operation, thread imprinting in bolt holes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... closely to the part geometry, the tear went below the surface of the part. This caused the material to separate at the grain boundaries and produced the cracks found in both the as-forged and heat-treated parts. Fig. 3 Possible tearing mechanism during trimming. The punch pulls part of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...× Fig. 6 Transverse failure origin in a valve spring made from ground rod. The transverse marks (arrow) are remnants of the grinding operation. 8× Fig. 7 Spring failure originating at a cluster of inclusions. (a) Two adjacent dark areas (boxed zone) indicate presence of nonmetallics. 9×. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grinding damage, machining marks or nicks, and quench cracks resulting from heat treating operations. Frequently, stress concentrators are introduced during hot or cold forming of shafts; these include surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, pits and forging laps, and internal imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... A). (b) Machined grooves and punch marks (arrow B) on surface of crankpin. (c) Groove in crankpin, where cracking was initiated Fig. 40 Stub-shaft assembly, for agitator in a polyvinyl chloride reactor, that failed by ductile fracture. Top left: Configuration and dimensions (given in inches...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , p 389 – 423 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001025 Splice plates used in power transmission line towers are usually galvanized steel angles made of hot-rolled structural steels [ 1 ]. Several holes are punched in both faces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... A photomicrograph of the flow forming machine is shown in Fig. 2 . The preform—a thick walled starting material for flow forming—was fabricated by forging (both upsetting and drawing), piercing with tapered punches, and mandrel forging, followed by hardening and tempering. Fig. 2 Four-axis CNC flow forming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... the unbroken joint. The fractured eye portion of the tie-bar, which had been cut off approximately on the line A—A marked in Fig. 4 was received for examination, complete with the outer splice plates and pin. Subsequently, the part of the tie embracing the upper splice joint and a section of the tie-bar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lifting equipment is operated. Fig. 1 End of a steel wire rope that failed in tension because of overloading. Necking at the ends of the wires indicates ductile fracture; no worn or abraded areas were found at the break. Section changes, keyways, lubrication holes, rough-machining marks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Mouginot R. and Maugis D. , Fracture Indentation beneath Flat and Spherical Punches , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 20 , 1985 , p 4354 – 4376 10.1007/BF00559324 13. Lawn B.R. , Partical Cone Crack Formation in a Brittle Material Loaded with a Sliding Spherical Indenter , Proc. R. Soc...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Discontinuities, generally at intersections, caused by mechanical effects (rupture) C 110: Normal cracking C 111 (a) Normal fracture appearance, sometimes with adjacent indentation marks Breakage (cold) C 120: Cracking with oxidation C 121 (a) Fracture surface oxidized completely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of seven steps: The ingot is cogged into a billet in a number of reheats, forging being carried out between 2000 and 1650° F. The billet is cut into blocks under the press. The blocks are flattened (upset) and the central hole punched and drifted under the press. The shape is trued...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... L6 punch that failed after limited service, because (b) the punch was underaustenitized. Specimen etched with nital Fig. 30 Light micrograph of overaustenitized AISI O1 tool steel containing coarse plate martensite and substantial unstable retained austenite. Specimen etched with nital...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... glass Use to look at samples. Loop is higher magnification, 10–25×. Lower-power magnifying glass can also be helpful Tape measure Measure long distances Indelible ink marker (fine) Mark items, bags, bottles Flashlight Look at items in holes, dark areas, etc.. Good to have 90° bend...