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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “Supplemental Articles,” in this online Volume). Tool and Die Characteristics Steels used for tools and dies differ from most other steels in several aspects. First, they are used in the manufacture of other products by a variety of forming processes (stamping, shearing, punching, rolling, bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Handbook Archived Volumes ). Tool and Die Characteristics Steels used for tools and dies differ from most other steels in several aspects. First, they are used in the manufacture of other products by a variety of forming processes (stamping, shearing, punching, rolling, bending, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The external air ring uses compressed air to cool the bubble. The point at which the molten plastic solidifies is called the frost line. A series of guide rails keep the bubble from swaying as it is pulled along by the nip rolls through the collapsing frame. The collapsing frame gradually folds the film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are to be understood “at the free state” (or unmounted state); the press fits used change the effective radial clearance due to expansion of the inner rings and contraction of the outer rings. Thermal dilatation can reduce or increase the effective radial clearance (after mounting, thus after the eventual press fits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and unidirectional bending usually produce the beach-mark pattern shown in Fig. 2(j) . Example 1: Unidirectional-Bending Fatigue Failure of an A6 Tool Steel Shaft The shaft shown in Fig. 3 was part of a clamping device on a tooling assembly used for bending 5.7-cm (2.25-in.) outer-diameter tubing on an 8.6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... forming, piston rings, skirts and cylinders, chains, cams and follower bearings, and gears ( Ref 26 ). The normal break-in is a form of mild adhesive wear. Scuffing usually refers to moderate adhesive wear, while galling, smearing, seizing, and scoring result from severe adhesion ( Ref 4 ). When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Fatigue Failure of an A6 Tool Steel Shaft The shaft shown in Fig. 3 was part of a clamping device on a tooling assembly used for bending 5.7 cm (2.25 in.) outer-diameter tubing on an 8.6 cm (3.375 in.) radius. The assembly contained two of these shafts, both of which failed simultaneously and were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to designate fretting-type damage are false Brinelling , which is applied particularly to bearings in which the craters caused by the vibration of the ball against the race are circular and resemble Brinell impressions, and fitting rust , in which gages or shims are clamped together and experience vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Fully quenched-and-tempered low-carbon steels and similarly treated alloy steels are also used for such applications. Miscellaneous Equipment Lifting booms, coil hooks, lugs and rings, boxes and containers, trunnions, and miscellaneous attachments should be made of either normalized or quenched...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., superficial cavities in the form of droplets of shallow spots, generally gray-green in color Slag inclusions D 200: Serious surface defects D 210: Deep indentation of the casting surface D 211 Deep indentation, often over large area of drag half of casting Push-up, clamp-off D...