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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 3 Fracture surface covered with corrosion products and pulp deposits. No deformation or ductility is visible next to the fracture. 8×. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Macrofractography The fracture was brittle, with no significant necking or deformation next to it. The fracture surface was covered with reddish brown corrosion products and pulp deposits ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3 Fracture surface covered with corrosion products and pulp deposits. No deformation or ductility...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... the heavy corrosion products and caked-on pulp had collected. Fig. 1 Stress-corrosion cracking liner of cast neck liner. (a) Illustration of neck liner removed from a pulp digester vessel. Note the abrupt change in cross section that led to a caked-on buildup. Dimensions given in millimeters (inches...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., cardboard, or particle board took place in a paper mill using an alloy with a nominal composition of Fe-0.48C-0.30Mn-0.90Si-8.50Cr-1.35Mo-1.20W-0.30V. This alloy performed well in pulp mill applications where the knives are typically 20 to 30 in. (51 to 76 cm) long, from about 5 to 7 in. (13 to 18 cm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Routine inspections of a carbon steel wood pulp digester revealed a sharply increasing number of cracks in the overlay metal on the internal surface of the digester after 1 and 2 years of service. The weld overlay was composed of type 309 stainless steel on the top fourth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., including ultrasonic examination. It is known in the pulp and paper industry that such corrosion can indicate corrosion product buildup in the joint, which can lead to shell and head cracking. Acknowledgment The author was assisted in this investigation by R.P. Manganello, F.W. Tatar, I. Canner...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., mineral processing, chemical processing, and energy production. Corrosion and wear processes involve many mechanisms, the combined actions of which lead to the mutual reinforcement of their effectiveness. Seventeen synergistic relationships between abrasion, impact, and corrosion that could significantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0090276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... the conclusion that the cracking was caused by an unexpected type of load placed on the machine, namely corrosion product buildup at the head/shell interface causing the joint to displace open. It was also found that compressive bolting loads could slightly open the head/shell interface at the periphery...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to plant personnel, reducing environmental discharges, and reducing costs associated with equipment downtime and loss of production. Conducting failure analyses can help companies meet industry and regulatory code and standard requirements, including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... various sources viz., soil, caves, and teeth pulp stone [ 18 – 21 ]. Recently, Chen et al. [ 19 ] investigated bacteria-mediated ( Proteus mirabilis ) synthesis of metal carbonate minerals with unusual morphologies and structures. To the best of our knowledge, there are almost no reports...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... and the careful analysis of the steam products by the customer, it was surprising that these failures had occurred. A careful analysis of the steam and the operating procedures that had been used was therefore undertaken. This verified that the steam normally met the purity levels specified, but duringboiler...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as subzero snowfields to deep ocean thermal vents. Halophiles evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product of their metabolism, while other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article briefly introduces the concepts of failure analysis and root cause analysis (RCA), and the role of failure analysis as a general engineering tool for enhancing product quality and failure prevention. It reviews four fundamental categories of physical root causes, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... industries: Carbon, low-alloy, stainless steel, and nickel alloy process piping and vessels Manufacturing: Steel components subjected to caustic environments in pulp and paper equipment, sensitized stainless steel piping in food processing or dairy industries Power generation: Alloy steel used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article briefly introduces the concepts of failure analysis, including root-cause analysis (RCA), and the role of failure analysis as a general engineering tool for enhancing product quality and failure prevention. It initially provides definitions of failure on several different...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the study. When extrapolated to all U.S. industries, the total cost estimate is $276 billion, or more than 3% of the U.S. gross domestic product ( Ref 1 ). This great cost is a measure of the importance of corrosion management and an indication of the significance of potential cost saving that corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Halophiles that have evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product of their metabolism, while other microorganisms survive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... As of 1972, the characteristics of SCC were known to include ( Ref 9 ): Tensile stress is required. This stress may be supplied by service loads, cold work, mismatch in fitup, heat treatment, and the wedging action of corrosion products. Only alloys are susceptible (no pure metals), although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... regions and estimated the global cost of corrosion was 2.5 trillion U.S. dollars, which is equivalent to 3.4% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) for 2013. The annual cost in the United States alone was estimated at 451 billion U.S. dollars, or approximately 2.7% of the U.S. GDP ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... with corrosion products that appeared to consist largely of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). Bearing in mind that the interior of the vessel would be covered with a thin layer of rusty sludge after it had been emptied for examination purposes, the existence of the fissures could easily be overlooked unless their presence...