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pulp production

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... necking or deformation next to it. The fracture surface was covered with reddish brown corrosion products and pulp deposits ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3 Fracture surface covered with corrosion products and pulp deposits. No deformation or ductility is visible next to the fracture. 8×. Scanning Electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., cardboard, or particle board took place in a paper mill using an alloy with a nominal composition of Fe-0.48C-0.30Mn-0.90Si-8.50Cr-1.35Mo-1.20W-0.30V. This alloy performed well in pulp mill applications where the knives are typically 20 to 30 in. (51 to 76 cm) long, from about 5 to 7 in. (13 to 18 cm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... work were concentrated above the change in diameter where the heavy corrosion products and caked-on pulp had collected. Fig. 1 Stress-corrosion cracking liner of cast neck liner. (a) Illustration of neck liner removed from a pulp digester vessel. Note the abrupt change in cross section that led...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Routine inspections of a carbon steel wood pulp digester revealed a sharply increasing number of cracks in the overlay metal on the internal surface of the digester after 1 and 2 years of service. The weld overlay was composed of type 309 stainless steel on the top fourth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fracture surfaces had the appearance of biittle fracture. The entire exposed edge of the shell exhibited general and pitting corrosion. It was also covered with a thin, uniform layer of corrosion products. The gap between the ID of the shell and the edge of the head was completely filled with a hard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as mining, mineral processing, chemical processing, and energy production. Corrosion and wear processes involve many mechanisms, the combined actions of which lead to the mutual reinforcement of their effectiveness. Seventeen synergistic relationships between abrasion, impact, and corrosion that could...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to plant personnel, reducing environmental discharges, and reducing costs associated with equipment downtime and loss of production. Conducting failure analyses can help companies meet industry and regulatory code and standard requirements, including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-Cormenzana A. : Production of calcite (calcium carbonate) crystals by soil bacteria is a general phenomenon . Nature (London) 246 , 527 – 529 ( 1973 ) 10.1038/246527a0 29. Kramer G. , Klingler H.C. , Steiner G.E. : Role of bacteria in the development of kidney stones . Curr...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... industries: Carbon, low-alloy, stainless steel, and nickel alloy process piping and vessels Manufacturing: Steel components subjected to caustic environments in pulp and paper equipment, sensitized stainless steel piping in food processing or dairy industries Power generation: Alloy steel used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... As of 1972, the characteristics of SCC were known to include ( Ref 9 ): Tensile stress is required. This stress may be supplied by service loads, cold work, mismatch in fitup, heat treatment, and the wedging action of corrosion products. Only alloys are susceptible (no pure metals), although...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in environments as diverse as subzero snowfields to deep ocean thermal vents. Halophiles evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0090276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... the conclusion that the cracking was caused by an unexpected type of load placed on the machine, namely corrosion product buildup at the head/shell interface causing the joint to displace open. It was also found that compressive bolting loads could slightly open the head/shell interface at the periphery...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... of the steam products by the customer, it was surprising that these failures had occurred. A careful analysis of the steam and the operating procedures that had been used was therefore undertaken. This verified that the steam normally met the purity levels specified, but duringboiler-cleaning operations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... mechanism of concern for many different industries. Fatigue failures not only pose a serious safety risk, but they can lead to costly equipment downtime, repairs, and lost production or lost in-service operating time. To this end, it is essential to properly engineer and fabricate new equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analyzed in the study. When extrapolated to all U.S. industries, the total cost estimate is $276 billion, or more than 3% of the U.S. gross domestic product ( Ref 1 ). This great cost is a measure of the importance of corrosion management and an indication of the significance of potential cost saving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at a temperature between Ac 1 and Ac 3 may exhibit a mixed microstructure of ferrite and upper-transformation products (pearlite and bainite) resulting from the quenching effect of escaping water or steam on the partly austenitic structure existing at the instant of rupture ( Fig. 12b ). Caution should...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article briefly introduces the concepts of failure analysis and root cause analysis (RCA), and the role of failure analysis as a general engineering tool for enhancing product quality and failure prevention. It reviews four fundamental categories of physical root causes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to manufacture at normal production rates … Material discontinuities that cause failures in metal products Table 2 Material discontinuities that cause failures in metal products Metal product form Types of discontinuities Forgings Laps Bursts Cracks Flow-through defects Extrusion-type...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... composition, time, and gas composition. High-temperature corrosive environments may include power-generation plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), pulp and paper mills, waste incineration sites, numerous industrial chemical processes, diesel engines (power, land vehicle, and maritime), and gas turbine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... R.H. , Cathodic Protection , Corrosion , Vol 13 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1987 , p 466 – 477 14. Martin R.L. , Corrosion Inhibitors for Oil and Gas Production , Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Vol 13A , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2003...