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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Cathodic protection of a buried pipeline using a buried magnesium anode. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Impressed-current cathodic protection of a buried pipeline using graphite anodes. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 25 Cathodic protection of a buried pipeline using a buried magnesium anode. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 26 Impressed-current cathodic protection of a buried pipeline using graphite anodes. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 16 Current density needed to sustain a set cathodic protection potential as a function of iron sulfide present in biologically active soil box experiments under anaerobic conditions More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract Numerous protective covers, used in conjunction with an electrical appliance, failed during assembly with the mating components. The failures were traced to a particular production lot of the covers and occurred during insertion of the screws into the corresponding bosses. The parts...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 12 Effect of welding under protective atmosphere. (a) oxygen-containing copper. (b) oxygen-free copper. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Metal consumption over time for an alloy forming a protective scale under various turbine cycling conditions. The solid black line indicates metal consumption in a thermal cycling regime, with each parabola representing oxidation after effective loss of the protective oxide layer More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A failure of an aboveground storage tank occurred due to external corrosion of the tank floor. The liquid asphalt tank operated at elevated temperatures (approximately 177 deg C, or 350 deg F) and had been in service for six years. Cathodic protection (rectifiers) had been installed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The fracture face contained evidence of intergranular SCC as well as ductile dimples. The protective coating was found to be an inorganic water-base aluminide coating having a coating thickness of 7.5 to 13 micron (0.3 to 0.5 mil). The coating was of a nonuniform mottled nature. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring; and preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that the casting could be twisted and stretched as through made of rubber. The chemistry of the casting was acceptable for CN-7M. The reason the part failed is a continuous film of carbide with a continuous crack running parallel to the carbides. This sensitized structure produces an area depleted in protective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... bearing compared with 7% lead of the failed bearing helped to establish a protective transfer layer on the worn surface. This transfer layer reduced metal-to-metal contact between the bearing and the roller and resulted in a lower wear rate. The lower lead content of the failed bearing does not allow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... included application of a protective coating to the blades, provided the coating was sufficiently ductile to avoid cracking during operation to prevent surface oxidation. Such a coating would also alleviate thermal differentials, provided the thermal conductivity of the coating exceeded that of the base...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on the lug were evidence that the surface protection of the part had been inadequate as manufactured or had been damaged in service and not properly repaired in routine maintenance. Recommendations included anodizing the lug and barrel in sulfuric acid and giving them a dichromate sealing treatment, followed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... are recommended in the specialist literature: reduction in piston play; reduction in the amplitude by thicker-walled linings; hard chromizing of the cooling water side; and, addition of a protective oil to the cooling water. The effect of the protective oil is presumably based on a film of oil which forms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., which resulted from heating during welding. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis showed the outside surface of the tube did not have the protective chromium oxide scale normally found on Incoloy 800. The inside surface of the tube had a thin chromium oxide protective scale. This evidence supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A section of pipe in a hydrocarbon pipeline was found to be leaking. The pipeline was installed several decades earlier and was protected by an external coating of extruded polyethylene and a cathodic protection system. The failed pipe section was made from API 5L X46 line pipe steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surfaces, protected by an anti-carburizing coating, stay unchanged. Based on extensive testing, including metallographic examination, microstructural analysis, microhardness testing, and spectroscopy, the oil hole was not protected as required, evidenced by the presence of a case layer. This oversight...