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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... a section of the ways and a heavy adjustable mechanism which normally rides on these ways. The weight of the broken section was estimated at several hundred pounds. There was no support for the broken piece beyond the point of breakage. The material was a commercial cast iron, and the largest proportion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Property measured Limitations Strength/ductility testing Unidirectional tension Ultimate tensile strength Yield strength Proportional limit (curve) Ductility: percent reduction in area and percent elongation May be insufficient material for standard test specimen Anisotropic materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... its composition, but met with limited success. The usual plate like constituent found in these alloys is known as β(Al-Fe-Si), and the amount present is proportional to the iron content. In this case, the etching reaction of the needles did not correspond to that of β(Al-Fe-Si), and it is presumed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to prevent thermal distortion. Thermal gradients can cause a change of shape, which is a distortion of the component. The distortion is proportional to the gradient of the strain, and so it is proportional to the thermal gradient. By Fourier’s first law, the heat flow is proportional to the thermal gradient...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... present in the expected proportions. The metallographic cross section shown in Figure 2 was also studied in the SEM. Again, no unusual elements were detected in the grain boundaries. The embrittled tube was then analyzed using an Auger electron scanning microprobe. A notched sample was fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Fundamentals of fatigue failure are outlined. Addressed are fatigue crack characteristics, basic crack types, unidirectional bending, alternate bending, rotary bending, torsion, direct stress, and combined stress. Stress cycle, endurance limits, under and overstressing, stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the loads associated with landing and taxiing. Since they are not used in flight, landing gear components have been designed to meet design and limit loads using materials with high specific strengths in order to carry out their functions with minimum weight and use of space. Despite the extensive landing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Thus, x-ray spectroscopy is simply the manner by which this spectrum of x-rays is produced. Note that this spectrum is limited at both the low and high ends of the energy/wavelength scale. Because it takes energy to remove an electron from its orbital and cause it to be ejected from the atom, the high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... over the fatigue limit of the material. A strain gage static loading test verified FEM results, and finite element techniques were applied in the design of reinforcing members to renovate the frames. Material properties were determined and welding procedures specified for the reinforcing members...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fractures. The cross section is not noticeably constricted at the point of fracture. The fractures have regions of coarse conchoidal structure. Such regions diminish the deformability the more, the larger they are in proportion to the total fracture cross section and the less favorably they are located...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the understanding that the analysis will have lower precision and higher detection limits. Digestion of solid samples into solution and the ICP-OES analysis method require higher skill levels than other OES methods. The use of one or more mineral acids in varying proportions is necessary to produce complete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ). In the mid-1800s, Wohler conducted experiments to establish a safe alternating stress below which failure would not occur in full-scale railroad axles and smaller laboratory specimens to establish the endurance-limit concept for design ( Ref 6 ). In the late 1800s, Bauschinger studied the relationship...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... but is discouraged unless the discontinuity is such that it exceeds the limit of an applicable specification or it can be associated with a failure; for further discussion, see, for example, Ref 1 . Table 1 is a summary of various NDE methods. Several methods can detect surface or subsurface imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... limit of polymer composites and polymer testing best practices. friction testing lubrication polymers wear rate wear testing TRIBOLOGY is the study of contacting materials in relative motion, more specifically the study of friction, wear, and lubrication ( Ref 1 ). The term tribology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... storage. On many claims for which we have been consulted, the sea voyage occupied only a small proportion of the insurance interval. The reason for this is the wide range of time intervals covered by marine policies. These can cover the voyage itself or might extend for long intervals on either side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Polymers are viscoelastic, that is, they respond to stress as if they were a combination of elastic solids and viscous fluids, but not always in a stable 50–50 proportion. The balance of the storage and loss components of a polymer is important in determining its melt processibility and functionality...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the shroud plate as well as, but to a lesser extent, in the blade roots. Since any cyclic tensile stress in the shroud plate was nominally not more than 10 to 15 MPa under normal operating conditions (and thus below the fatigue limit), it was initially thought that the cyclic fatigue stress source arose from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... years, compositions of refractories were limited to individual minerals as mined. With time, it was recognized that nature did not proportion the oxide contents of the minerals in the most suitable ratio for optimum refractory performance. As pure oxides became available and affordable in terms of cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ultimately, one of fracture. If the material is a solid, then the simplest relationship between force and deformation is one in which the applied stress is proportional to the total resultant strain. The proportionality factor is referred to as a modulus of elasticity in the solid material; it may be used...