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properties of refractory metals

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., chemical analysis, microstructural characterization, and mechanical property testing. The pipe was made from nonresulfurized carbon steel as specified and was lined with an alumina refractory. Visual inspection revealed cracks in the refractory lining, which corresponded with the location of the bulge...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 538 °C (1000 °F).” Nowadays, refractories are made of not only oxides and nonoxide compounds (carbides, nitrides, and carbons), but also of metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., intergranular attack led to degradation of the mechanical properties, resulting in the fracture of the drain valve tip during disassembly. Antimony was not observed on this component. High temperature Vitrification Inconel 690 UNS N06690 Intergranular fracture Intergranular corrosion Background...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and physical state of the carbon in the cast iron is the primary controlling factor in determining the properties of the cast iron. In typical iron castings, the solidification microstructure consists of the carbon-rich phase (graphite) and the metallic matrix which has limited carbon solubility. Most cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of a Stainless Steel Cyclone on the Gasification Pilot Plant Facility at Morgantown , The Properties and Performance of Materials in the Coal Gasification Environment , American Society for Metals , 1981 , p 709 – 734 30. Hansen J.S. , Relative Erosion Resistance of Several Materials , Erosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is well illustrated by the section shown in Figure 14 . Calculations show that this amount of residual metal having properties of the order shown by the sample tested would fail at approximately the pressure attained during the pressure test. Fig. 14 Section indicating sequence of cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of hydrogen in certain metals and alloys is the reaction of water vapor with the liquid metal at high temperatures. The water vapor may originate from the charge materials, slag ingredients and alloy additions, refractory linings, ingot molds, or even the atmosphere itself if steps are not taken to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a Fluidized Bed , J. Mater. Sci. Vol 32 , 1997 , p 4575 – 4583 10.1023/A:1018677418941 17. Crowley M.S. , Know Causes of, Solutions to, CFB-Boiler Refractory Problems , Power , Vol 136 , Jan 1992 , p 54 – 57 18. Tucker R.C. and Ashari A.A. , The Structure Property...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inside the vessel conducting the hot gas flow to a water quench. An investigation was performed to identify possible scenarios for the cause of the incident. Gasifier Design and Operation The refinery power plant had two gasifiers, shown in Fig. 1 , each with two stages; an upper, refractory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for Metals , 1975 10.2355/tetsutohagane1955.61.14_2998 3. DeArdo A.J. , Hamburg E.G. , Influence of elongated inclusions on the mechanical properties of high strength steel plate , in Sulfide Inclusions in Steel: Proceedings of an International Symposium , American Society for Metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , Vol 3 , Properties and Selection: Stainless Steels, Tool Materials and Special Purpose Metals , American Society for Metals , 1980 , p 214 . Selected References Selected References • Creep and Stress Rupture Failures , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in casting designs that emphasize progressive solidification toward a gate or riser, tapered walls, and the avoidance of hot spots. Static properties are mostly unaffected by microporosity. Microporosity is found between dendrites and, similar to macroporosity, is caused by the inability of feed metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are entrapped inadvertently and originate almost exclusively from foreign matter, such as refractory linings, that is occluded in the metal while it is molten or being cast Those that form in the metal because of a change in temperature or composition Inclusions of the latter type are produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (such as lead, tin, and high-purity aluminum) can deform by creep at or a little above room temperature. In contrast, refractory body-centered cubic metals (such as tungsten and molybdenum) and nickel-base superalloys require temperatures near 1000 °C (1830 °F) to activate the onset of creep deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... or entrapment at any portion of the crack. An entrapment is essentially a large non-metallic mass, which may get entrapped during casting of the alloy. Generally, it may comprise of refractory, eroded from the tundish or converter lining. It may be steel making slag or casting/mold powder, which are used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the stress with the modulus. One way to avoid creep failure is to select the proper alloy based on parametric extrapolation of creep properties. In general, creep occurs in any metal or alloy at a temperature where atoms become sufficiently mobile to allow time-dependent rearrangement of structure. Creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The decision is to determine whether each design concept will be made from metal, plastics, ceramic, composite, or wood and to narrow it to a group of materials. The precision of property data needed is rather low. If an innovative choice of material is to be made, it should be done at the conceptual design...