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programmable logic controllers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... together to create a failure management program. The article ends with a discussion on some practical issues pertaining to RCM that lie outside the scope of SAE JA1011. failure management policy failure modes and effects analysis failure prevention reliability-centered maintenance RELIABILITY...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the initial scheduled maintenance program for the DC-8, published in 1959, established overhaul intervals for 339 items in the aircraft in addition to periodic overhauls for the engines and for the airplane as a whole. However, there was some evidence that this conventional wisdom had flaws. The airlines...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be a physical, mathematical, or logical representation of a physical system or process. accident reconstruction failure analysis modeling FAILURE ANALYSIS is generally defined as the investigation and analysis of parts or structures that have failed or appeared to have failed to perform...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the analysis. Overview of FMEA As the name suggests, FMEA is a procedure that examines each item in a system, considers how that item can fail, and then determines how that failure will affect the operation of the system. It is a structured, logical, and systematic analysis. Identifying possible...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... distributions for two NDE techniques Inspection Intervals A key aspect of a damage tolerant fracture control program is the interval between inspections. This depends on the specific values of the level of damage that will cause fracture, the rate of evolution of damage, and the probability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Report Preparation and Writing A failure analysis report is the summation of individual tests and analyses performed during an investigation. The report consolidates results and presents them in a concise, logical format. It should describe the particulars of the subject being studied, convey...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Investigators are now capable of deploying various tools (laser scanning, photogrammetry, drones, etc.) to acquire high-quality, highly accurate data to successfully document accident scenes while preserving evidence for future examination. A model is a physical, mathematical, or logical representation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... logic for the elements. The algorithms that control the timing of the element pulses are called focal laws. Since linear array systems are meant to simulate only a single-element transducer scanning in a line equal to the active width of the array, the focal laws are simple (all groups are pulsed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equipment. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funded a significant effort to develop and apply probabilistic methods to space hardware. The Probabilistic Structures Analysis Methods for Select Space Propulsion System Components program developed analytical techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The equipment required to perform the test, the algorithms needed to control the individual equipment, the control logic required to ensure repeatability throughout the duration of the test, the connectivity between individual control algorithms and logic to ensure phasing, and so on are all substantial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the next in line, was sacrificed during the investigation to better understand the failure and to determine the root cause. During the failure investigation, many other design and manufacturing flaws were discovered. These discoveries led to the implementation of many improvements as the Apollo program...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a structural bolt in-service due to fracture. Failure and Failure Analysis A logical failure analysis approach first requires a clear understanding of the failure definition and the distinction between an indicator (i.e., symptom), a cause, a failure mechanism, and a consequence. Although it may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...  Sound Walls, sound-absorbing wall surfaces Control motion Cams, grooves, slots, gears Allow passage (of light, rods, shafts, wires, pipes, etc.) Holes, windows, grooves Control or regulate the passage of:  Fluids Nozzles, orifices, pipes, ducts  Light Shutters, wheels Indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...  Sound Walls, sound-absorbing wall surfaces Control motion Cams, grooves, slots, gears Allow passage (of light, rods, shafts, wires, pipes, etc.) Holes, windows, grooves Control or regulate the passage of  Fluids Nozzles, orifices, pipes, ducts  Light Shutters, wheels Indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of a consumer ( Ref 12 ). These characteristics of quality also apply internally to those in organizations, either in the services, or in manufacturing, operating, or administering products, processes, and systems ( Ref 12 ). Computer software systems for quality control have also gained prominence. The intent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A bird may be ingested into an engine at takeoff or landing. The engine must be able to handle a bird strike without an uncontained failure, fire, or engine mount failure. An engine must be able to shut down in a controlled fashion to pass this U.S. Federal Aviation Administration requirement. The jet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... manufacturers, and high-temperature extensometers can readily be constructed in the lab or purchased commercially. Control Logic The temperature signal is processed and used as the command signal for the strain-control channel to produce a desired strain-temperature profile. However, it is customary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... steel pipe from Three Mile Island #1 The following program was initiated to analyze the failure: Visual inspections and photographs of both the inner and outer surfaces Optical microscopy Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) Bulk chemistry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and thermoplastics, are covered later in this article. Stepwise Polymerization A common example of the stepwise reaction pathway is the epoxy-amine chemical reaction. In stepwise reactions, the functional group reactivity controls the speed of reaction. For example, five-minute epoxy is a common two-part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 1960s a range of new methods has been developed to characterize uncertainty while offsetting some of the limitations of a probabilistic framework, such as fuzzy logic or the Dempster-Shafer theory, for example. These methods are beyond the scope of the present article, and the authors recommend...