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processing-induced corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Brittle intergranular fracture, typical of a hydrogen-induced delayed failure, caused the failure of an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni landing gear beam. Corrosion resulting from protective coating damage released nascent hydrogen, which diffused into the steel under the influence of sustained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... The tube sheets failed by SCC as a result of the combined action of internal stresses and a corrosive environment. The internal stresses had been induced by retubing operations, and the environment had become corrosive when ammonia was introduced into the system by the occasional use of process make-up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... nitratehydroxide complexes in the oxides on the weld areas of the pipe. The intergranular attack and pitting on the inside surface of the pipe exhibit typical characteristics of nitrate-induced corrosion processes. The temperatures expected within the pipe are consistent with nitrate-induced stress-corrosion...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 2 Simplified process flow diagram of potential damage mechanisms for the crude unit/vacuum unit of a refinery. Red circles indicate those types of damage mechanisms identified as stress-corrosion cracking. HIC, hydrogen-induced cracking; SOHIC, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stock. The increased resistance to exfoliation observed on forgings from rolled stock is attributable to a more favorable randomized grain structure induced by the rolling process. Thus, for optimizing exfoliation corrosion resistance of high-strength forgings, rolled bar stock should be preferred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of failure and provide preventive measures. The valve body was made of A216-WCC cast carbon steel. Its inner surface was covered with cracks stemming from surface pits. Investigators concluded that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... embrittlement. This phenomenon shares many of these characteristics with other modes of environmentally induced cracking, such as hydrogen embrittlement and stress-corrosion cracking. The discussion covers the occurrence, failure analysis, and service failures of the embrittlement. The article also briefly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanisms that can result in a fatigue damage mode must be examined. Examples include corrosion fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, vibrationally induced fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, and fatigue induced only by mechanical cyclic stresses. Determination of damage mechanisms starts by characterizing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects are of significant concern in failure analysis and prevention. Microbially induced corrosion problems afflict water-handling operations and manufacturing processes in oil and gas production, pipelining, refining, petrochemical synthesis, power production, fermentation, waste water treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... ), showing that the final rupture process was ductile overload. All these features indicated that corrosion-fatigue was the cause of failure. This was confirmed with the presence of fatigue striations on the surface of the second zone ( Fig. 4 ). The pitting of the surface of the rod introduced a stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as SCC. Other forms of environmentally induced embrittlement of the grain boundaries include neutron embrittlement, solid metal induced embrittlement, and LMIE. Intergranular fracture processes, whether hydrogen or stress-corrosion enhanced, are frequently observed in high-strength steels, aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part. Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper toughness, grain size. Loading direction may show failure was secondary or impact-induced. Low temperatures Cyclic stress exceeded the endurance limit of the material. Check...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forms of environmentally induced embrittlement of the grain boundaries include neutron embrittlement, SMIE, and LMIE. Intergranular fracture processes, whether hydrogen or stress-corrosion enhanced, are frequently observed in high-strength steels, aluminum alloys, and nickel-base alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Internal corrosion Top-of-the-line corrosion Underdeposit corrosion Microbial-influenced corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking High-pH stress-corrosion cracking Near-neutral-pH stress-corrosion cracking Hydrogen cracking Hydrogen-assisted cracking Hydrogen-induced cracking Stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The helical mode of the cracking was probably due to the torsional stresses which would be imposed on the elbow by thermally induced movements of the coil in service. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Forms of Corrosion , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... In less than one year, the panels began to delaminate and the aluminum began to crack. It was found that the failure was the result of chloride-induced intergranular corrosion caused by chemicals in the adhesive and excessive moisture in the wood introduced during manufacturing. Adhesive joints...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... NOT to alter the original surface. Retain some of the contamination/corrosion product for later analysis. Agitation in an ultrasonic bath can help the cleaning process. Caution: Very soft materials may be damaged by the collapse of air bubbles adjacent to the part surface (cavitation). The sequence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., analysis of hydrotest waters, and microbiological examination of slime that had formed in certain pipework sections. It was determined that the failure resulted from microbially induced corrosion promoted by the use of poor-quality hydrotest water and uncontrolled hydrotesting practice. Use of appropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enhanced when the hydrogen is present in combination with residual or applied tensile stresses. Many types of hydrogen damage are not due to corrosion processes at all. However, because hydrogen damage has many similarities regardless of the source of the hydrogen, damage processes caused by corrosion...