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processing of refractory metals

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... industry corrosion resistance gas turbine components heat exchangers material selection power generation industry process control refractories structural ceramics REFRACTORY MATERIALS are used in various industrial applications to line the interior of a multitude of vessels (mainly made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a high-temperature environment by more than one corrosion mechanism. High-Temperature Corrosion Mechanisms High-temperature corrosion of materials may occur through a number of potential degradation processes: Oxidation Carburization and metal dusting Sulfidation Hot corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) alumina refractory lining Introduction The schematic representation of tuyere blow stock of the blast furnace of the present investigation is shown in Fig. 1 . The furnace has a hot metal production capacity of 3 million metric ton per annum. Hot blast from three stoves enters the bustle main...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ( Fig. 3 ), which appeared to be corrosion film or possibly excess brazing flux that had not been properly removed during the washing operation. Fig. 3 Schematic showing the silver-refractory metal contacts Testing Procedure and Results Chemical Analysis/Identification Coatings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... radioactive waste streams. 1 During the testing program, the melter was used to evaluate vitrification of various feed chemistries from across the DOE complex, processing parameters, and melter design/materials of construction such as refractory materials and drain valves. The walls of the melter chamber...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the CaO was determined to be slag entrapment during the steel making process. It was recommended that the thermowell blanks be ultrasonically tested prior to machining and that the design be modified to make internal pressurization possible. Leakage Nonmetallic inclusions Nuclear reactor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... thermomechanical cycling during the remainder of the welding process caused dynamic strain aging and localized embrittlement at the crack tips. Three plates had relatively low toughness. Under the combination of high residual stresses, pressurization stresses, and a low metal-shell temperature, the cracks extended...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... discontinuities hot forming ingot casting metalworking defects nonferrous forging steel forging wrought metal products Introduction to Failures Related to Hot Forming Processes Wrought forms are produced by a wide variety of metalworking operations that can be roughly divided into bulk-working...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... stainless steel brazeability brazed joints brazing failure analysis BRAZING comprises a group of nonfusion joining processes that produce coalescence of materials by heating them to a suitable temperature and by using a filler metal having a liquidus temperature above 450 °C (840 °F) but below...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... This is attributed to the upset strain and resultant radial flow of metal in the upset forging process. The sectioned surface of the second stage forging showed rough regions in the central region along the forging axis ( Fig. 4a ) when compared with the edges ( Fig. 4b ). This could be due to the presence of hard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., production method, and/or design. The article also addresses conditions related to the casting process but not specific to any metal group, including misruns, pour shorts, broken cores, and foundry expertise. The discussion in each casting metal group includes factors concerning defects that can occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., setting off the fire. The failure mechanisms include stress relaxation cracking of a large diameter Incoloy 825 tube, stress rupture of a 4.65 in. thick chromium steel shell wall, and the oxidation of chromium steel exposed to hot syngas. The gasifier process and operating conditions that contributed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., materials selection, and use problems: for example, underfill, part distortion, and poor dimensional control; tool overload and breakage; excessive tool wear; high initial investment due to equipment cost; poor material use and high scrap loss The movement of metal during these processes, whether...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the underlying metal, it may effectively protect the metal from erosion. Similarly, deposition of some process material on the surface may also protect it. These protective mechanisms have been observed on some boiler heat-exchanger tubes, but are probably more the exception than the rule. More often, oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hydrogen-induced blistering internal hydrogen internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement nickel-base alloys refractory metals stainless steels susceptibility titanium titanium alloys transition metals HYDROGEN DAMAGE is a term used to designate a number of processes in metals by which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to erosion compared with the normal surface material ( Ref 77 , 85 ). If the corrosion product is slow growing and more erosion resistant than the underlying metal, it can effectively protect the metal from erosion. Similarly, deposition of some process material on the surface can also protect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination of specimens etched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting process, casting material, and design with examples. The casting processes discussed include gravity die casting, pressure die casting, semisolid casting, squeeze casting, and centrifugal casting. Cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... temperature is subject to damage and ultimate failure by a variety of mechanisms including oxidation, embrittlement, creep, and thermal fatigue. The process of thermal fatigue has not been studied extensively, although this is a common cause of failure in high temperature tubes. Damage may be produced...