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process defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also are covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.9781627082358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... assisted fracture. Additionally, some components were found to contain fabrication/processing defects that contributed to premature failure. The implant of nonbiocompatible materials results in immeasurable damage to patients as well as losses for the public investment. It is proposed that local sanitary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... joints becomes important to prevent failure in the assembly level. Experience shows that solder joints can fail due to processing defects during solder joint formation or due to excessive loading in various applications. This article includes the dominant failure modes introduced during the solder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of discontinuities or defects that can occur from PBF and DED processes. These are inherent to the process, and various mitigation strategies are used to address discontinuities that are inherent with each of these metal AM processes. The design of AM parts also involves special consideration. Aside from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., it is not practical to hot extrude thin wall tubes beyond a specified limit. Drawing is an easier and less expensive process than extrusion; therefore, a thick wall tube is cold extruded and finished on a draw bench or pilger mill. The drawing process is essentially a tensile process. Microcracks and other defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... melting clinkers from scale and furnace lining filling up the crevice of the original defect. Decarburizing Ingots Nonmetallic inclusions Rolling Fe-0.4C-0.73Mn-1.15Cr-0.28Mo (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures Case History One percent Chromium-Molybdenum steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Countersunk riveted joints in aluminum sheet are widely employed in the aircraft industry. The preparation of the sheet for the riveting process consists either of countersinking where the sheet is sufficiently thick or of dimpling. Metallographic assessment of dimple defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...Suggested troubleshooting ideas for process defects encountered during extrusion Table 1 Suggested troubleshooting ideas for process defects encountered during extrusion Process defect Cause Troubleshooting step Low output Many potential causes Is the bulk density too low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... for creating the defects on the ID bore of the shank was the blade tip chrome plating process, which was carried out during the last overhaul prior to the failure. Aircraft components Chromium plating Scanning electron microscopy Martensitic steel Surface treatment related failures Intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001906
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... accepted into inventory. It was determined that the contractor was using a system that was not capable of detecting defects in certain orientations. Further, poor lug handling practice was observed during the MPI process. This combination of factors allowed defective components to leave the facility...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of failure due to defective parts. Included in the design process is the determination of specifications to which the foundry must work. Here, too, the foundry can be invaluable in providing the designer with input as to what materials should be used, what specifications are called out, what...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... with casting defects increasing stress and initiating fracture. In addition, the composition and hardness of the impeller did not meet specifications. Revision of the casting process and institution of quality assurance methods were recommended. Selected References Selected References • Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... initiation sites. It was recommended that the wire drawing process be investigated for various levels of steel cleanliness to predict the incidence of drawing defects at the wire surface. Stress analysis to determine the minimum tolerable defect size was also recommended. Selected References Selected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the subgrain boundaries that fractured during the torquing process ( Fig. 3 , 4 , 5 ). These features indicated the presence of a hot tear, which is a casting defect. Microporosity was also observed at random locations on the fracture surface ( Fig. 3 ), which is typical in this type of aluminum casting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... parameters resulted in acceptable welds. Bombs (weapons) Bomb fins Welded joints Weld defects Low-carbon steel Joining-related failures Introduction Component: MK#83 and MK#84 general purpose bomb fins Manufacturing defects: Nonpenetrating plug welds Background A First Article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0089663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of precipitates on slip planes within grain boundaries. Fatigue loading increases the concentration of point and line defects, and these defects assist diffusion. Therefore, precipitation, which is a diffusion-controlled process, is more advanced in the slip bands of a material subjected to fatigue. In this case...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., parts are made by a rather complex series of operations, which thus requires a broad understanding not only in the context of failure analysis but also in the organizational traditions for failure prevention. Defects that may result from postforming processes Table 1 Defects that may result from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the different stages of hot upset forging of the axle The Analysis The forging preforms taken at each stage of the forging process were sectioned longitudinally to check for the presence of defects. The sectioned preform in the first stage of the forging showed no evidence of visible defect. However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... assembly revealed tensile properties well below the allowable design values. Radiology and CT evaluations revealed no casting defects. Optical microscopy revealed porosity uniformly distributed throughout the casting on the order of 0.1 mm pore diam. Scanning electron microscopy revealed elongated pores...