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probability of detection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... begins with discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides information on life assessment strategies and conceptually illustrates the interplay of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and fracture mechanics in the damage tolerant approach. It presents information on probability of detection (POD) and probability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0007736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., and chloride was detected in some of the pits. The test also revealed an initial crack that was probably caused by hydrogen embrittlement. Since no chloride was detected on the fracture surface, and none was detected in the overlying concrete, the corrosion appears to have begun prior to the wires' placement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., but can most probably be attributed to corrosion fatigue. The failure in the boiler steam drum emphasizes the need for careful internal inspection of such components. In the event of cracking as described being detected, it may be appropriate to review the design carefully, with the object of reducing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., fatigue cracks probably would have been detected well before final failure. Bolts Cranes Drive shafts I-beams Steel plate Structural steel Fatigue fracture Introduction 1. Crane Collapse Due to Bolt Fatigue 2. Fatigue Failure of Crane Support Column 3. Fatigue Failure of a Crane...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, tensile testing, unetched 65x and 1% nital etched 65x magnification) supported the conclusions that the steel was too soft for the application – probably due to improper heat treatment. Fracture of the equalizer beams resulted from growth of mechanical cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... pits. Macroscopic appearance of the surface was of brittle fracture. X-ray stress analysis did not detect any residual stress in the top surface of the propeller blade adjacent to the fracture. However, a spanwise tensile stress of approximately 51 MPa (7.4 ksi) was indicated in the same surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001902
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the modified SAE 6150 spring steel, Canada's cold weather which may have had an embrittling effect on the steel, and cumulative fatigue damage from severe landing loads during service life. Replacement with heavier-duty spring legs will probably not eliminate this type of failure, but their use has reduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... which could be recognized as flaky cracks already in the fracture, and which later were united. No material defects could be detected in the cross section parallel to the fracture plane except for these very short cracks. These comparatively insignificant defects were sufficient to cause the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A crack was detected in one arm of the right-hand horizontal brace of the nose landing gear shock strut from a large military aircraft. The shock strut was manufactured from a 7049 aluminum alloy forging in the shape of a delta. A laboratory investigation was conducted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... portions of the vessel. Both dished ends were manufactured from the same batch and were supplied by the same manufacturer One of the dished ends had been exposed to sodium at 550 deg C (1020 deg F) for 500 h before failure due to sodium leakage was detected. The other dished end was used to fabricate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Sodium was detected by EDS in the internal deposits and the base of a gouge in a carbon steel tube and in the internal deposits of the stainless steel tube. The sodium probably formed sodium hydroxide with carryover moisture and caused the gouging, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... had been inspected several times using liquid penetrants, which should detect 0.8 mm (0.03 in.) cracks with high probability. However, none of these cracks had resulted in a catastrophic failure, indicating that the disks were capable of tolerating cracks considerably longer than the dysfunction crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... particles detected in Fig. 1 showing composition differences. (a) Portion of EDS scan obtained from one of the (bright) iron based particles in Fig. 1(b) . Some traces of carbon are also seen here, probably an oily residue on the flake. The silicon may be due to a dirt contaminant. (b) Portion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for primary and potential secondary damage modes can be performed once the applicable NDE techniques are chosen by the NDE inspector based on input from the failure analyst. Ideally, each chosen NDE method has a minimum detectable flaw size that is based on Probability of Detection (POD) studies conducted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ( Ref 5 ). Furthermore, as with bismuth, tellurium has virtually no solubility in either copper or nickel. Thus, by analogy, tellurium was concluded to be the probable embrittling agent. Although carbon was detected in some locations on the fracture surface, it probably did not contribute...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or a failure mode cause Undeveloped event A part of the system that has not yet been developed or defined A contributor to the probability of failure but the structure of that system part has not been defined Transfer gate A gate indicating that the corresponding part of the system fault tree...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... from valve body Specimen 4 was an entire valve assembly with an elbow, two pieces of welded pipe, and a threaded fitting. An area of staining (probable leakage) was noted on the elbow ( Fig. 3 ). To determine whether cracks were present near the area of probable leakage, the valve assembly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that a potential failure had been detected. By the mid-1960s, it was clear to maintenance experts in commercial aviation that scheduled overhauls were on their way out and that on-condition maintenance was on the way in. Experience with the reliability programs was also beginning to develop criteria...