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premature freezing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... premature failure of the part. POM should not be selected for automotive applications where elevated temperatures and acidic environments can exist. If exposure to acid is suspected, sodium bicarbonate should be applied to neutralize the surrounding environment, followed by copious quantities of water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... acceptance criteria that the designer did not or could not anticipate. In many instances, both design and manufacture of the casting contribute to premature failure. Clearly, both types of failure are preventable. On first inspection, it seems clear that the designer must accept responsibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... was improperly vetted. Correspondingly, a defect-related failure is one resulting from a condition that falls outside of the established acceptance criteria that the designer did not or could not anticipate. In many instances, both design and manufacture of the casting contribute to premature failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...× Depending on the type and degree of segregation that develops during solidification, some degree of banding carries over to the wrought form. If banding is severe, it can lead to discontinuities that cause premature failure. Excessive segregation also can have an adverse effect on subsequent fabrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... To achieve these functions, the sealing lips must be lubricated and must work under hydrodynamic conditions. (A dry sealing lip will wear prematurely because wear coefficients of the rubber/steel tribological couple are high.) In REBs that can be relubricated, a third function is required: allowing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or more factors can result in premature failure of the polymer. The analytical methodologies described previously are also applicable to analyze polymers. A few specific analyses for polymers are described as follows. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique for polymers. The IR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... points, usually impurities or segregates located in grain boundaries, begin to melt. Liquid films then form around the grain boundaries, which freeze when the alloy is cooled. As the liquid freezes, it contracts and leaves an envelope of porosity around the grain boundaries. This degrades the mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... instances, this recognition will enable the analyst to determine the primary cause of failure and to make suitable recommendations for eliminating the cause. The major factors that, singly or in combination, may lead to premature failure in service include incorrect fitting, excessive preloading during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... If banding is severe, it can lead to discontinuities that cause premature failure. For example, Fig. 6 shows the fatigue fracture of a carburized and hardened steel roller. Banded alloy segregation in the metal used for the rollers resulted in heavy, banded retained austenite, particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cyclic oxidation of chromia and alumina oxides formed on nickel-base alloys due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the oxide and the base alloy ( Ref 7 – 9 ). Superalloys containing a sulfur content of 10 ppm can cause premature spallation of protective oxides. Reducing alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... procedures suitable for 1035 steel were not appropriate for the higher-alloy material. Effect of Metallurgical Discontinuities Nonmetallic inclusions, seams, laps, bursts, and pipes are common discontinuities found in wrought products that may cause premature failure. Shrinkage, gas porosity, and cold...