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preheat treatment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... boss on one side. After annealing, hot spinning, annealing a second time, and tack welding a port fitting, the assembly was torch preheated to 120 to 150 deg C (250 to 300 deg F). The port fitting was then welded in place. Final full heat treatment to the T62 temper was followed by machining, testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A thick-walled tube that was weld fabricated for use as a pressure vessel exhibited cracks. Similar cracking was apparent at the weld toes after postweld stress relief or quench-and-temper heat treatment. The cracks were not detectable by nondestructive examination after welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... treatment program, it was decided to inject a chelate to control scale formation in the boiler tubes. Unfortunately, the chelate was added ahead of the preheater, where the boiler water still contained oxygen (O 2 ). As the chelate removed iron oxide, the O 2 formed more iron oxide, and this uniform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... curvature, preheated, then solution treated, water quenched, and then aged for 8 to 10 h. Analysis (visual inspection, slow-bend testing, 65x macrographic analysis, macroetching, spectrographic analysis, hardness tests, microhardness tests, tension tests, and microscopic examination) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... metal arc welding; neither preheating nor postheating was specified. The filler metal was E70S-6 continuous consumable wire with a copper coating to protect it from atmospheric oxidation while on the reel. Analysis of the two castings revealed that the carbon content was higher than specified, ranging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the remainder of the stud and in the flange to produce martensite. The stresses imposed by the thermal gradients and the phase changes were sufficient to generate the cracks. High-temperature preheat and postheat treatments would have retarded the cooling rate and prevented the formation of martensite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Hardenability evaluation is typically applied to heat treatment process control, but can also augment standard metallurgical failure analysis techniques for steel components. A comprehensive understanding of steel hardenability is an essential complement to the skills...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... specifications. All the bends were cold bent without post-bend heat treatment. The ASME Code does not require post-bend heat treatment. The replacement was the same design as the original with minor changes. The tube spacer design was changed, flange connections were added to the header ends, and two tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... weld and propagated into the base metal of the stem of the ball. A large variation in microhardness across the weld/HAZ/base metal indicated that proper preweld and postweld heat treatment schedules were not followed. Recommended practice for welding AISI 410 stainless steel involves preheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... also contributed to the failures. Use of proper welding techniques, including appropriate prewelding and postwelding heat treatments, was recommended. Selected References Selected References • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Discussion Forging Studies Ultra-low sulfur (<0.002% S) AMS 6414 steel samples from three different steel manufacturers were tested to determine the incipient melting temperature in a hot tensile extremely low stress device (Gleeble) using a variety of step-up preheat conditions. Regardless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., produced by the heat treatment of a white iron casting in a neutral atmosphere ( Ref 1 ). Decarburization is limited and produces a shallow decarburized surface layer and a thin associated pearlitic transition zone. The rest of the casting has an ordinary malleable cast iron microstructure. Sometimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...—water, oils, greases, waxes, paint, and rust that contain hydrogen or hydrates. Preheat and postweld heating (i.e., hydrogen bakeout, postweld heat treatment) promote the escape of hydrogen by diffusion and reduce the level of residual tensile stress that may be present. Hydrogen damage to weld deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... but before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... records that the ring had been removed for hydrotest and welded without any postweld heat treatment. The final cause of failure was concluded to be cracking that developed during the installation of the new shroud ring. Stress-relief heat treatments were recommended to be performed to reduce residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in still air for examination of the seams. Circumferential welding was done by the submerged arc process, using preheating at 200 °C (390 °F). Each subassembly was stress relieved by being heated to 620 to 660 °C (1150 to 1220 °F) for 6 h. Final joining of the three subassemblies followed the same...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of attachments should be done according to approved welding procedures, including preheat and postweld heat treatment. Nondestructive inspection after welding would identify toe cracks or other signfficant weld defects. Because ductility and toughness are related parameters, it is clear that the toughness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of test methods for welds are provided in the standards of the American Welding Society (AWS), particularly American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/AWS B4.0, “Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Welds.” A general treatment of mechanical testing of welds is also given in Ref 1 . Evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... mechanical properties and distortion control during heat treatment . Work done by Ohio State University and Case Western Reserve University for US Department of Energy , Washington DC ( 1995 ) 10.2172/434855 10. Lee G.-A. , Im Y.-T. : Finite-element investigation of the wear and elastic...