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precipitation hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... steel hardened to 36 to 38 HRc, whereas the race was also of 17-4PH hardened to 26 to 35 HRc. The ball was constructed of 440C steel hardened to 55 to 62 HRc. The liner was a Teflon impregnated sintered bronze matrix. The fracture surface was found to contain beach marks originating at the tips...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... impulse test. Both part types were made of 15-5 PH (UNS S15500) precipitation hardening stainless steel. Hydrogen embrittlement cracking was the likely cause of failure for both part types. Cracking of the as-fabricated parts was ultimately prevented by changing the manufacturing procedure to allow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract The failures of two aircraft components, one from a landing gear and the other from an ejector rack mechanism, were investigated. Both were made from PH 13-8 Mo (UNS S13800) precipitation-hardening stainless steel which had been heat treated to the H1000 and H950 tempers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A precipitation-hardened stainless steel poppet valve assembly used to shut off the flow of hydrazine fuel to an auxiliary power unit was found to leak. SEM and optical micrographs revealed that the final heat treatment designed for the AM-350 bellows material rendered the AM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two 20 MW turbines suffered damage to second-stage blades prematurely. The alloy was determined to be a precipitation-hardening nickel-base superalloy comparable to Udimet 500, Udimet 710, or Rene 77. Typical protective coatings were not found. Test results further showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Several compressor disks in military fighter and trainer aircraft gas turbine engines cracked prematurely in the bolt hole regions. The disks were made of precipitation-hardened AM355 martensitic stainless steel. Experimental and analytical work was performed on specimens from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... – 2327 13. Fractography and Atlas of Fractographs , Vol 9 , Metals Handbook , 8th ed. , American Society for Metals , 1974 , p 112 14. Kuramoto S. , Itoh G. , and Kanno M. , Intergranular Fracture in Some Precipitation-Hardened Aluminum Alloys at Low Temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-Z is a copper-base alloy containing 3% Ag and 0.5% Zr. Silver acts as a precipitation hardener, and zirconium acts as a getter for soluble oxygen. The NARloy-Z goes through a fabrication process that includes casting, forging, and heat treatment. Chemical analysis is performed at various stages...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Interantional , 1987 , p 112 9. Fractography and Atlas of Fractographs , Vol 9 , Metals Handbook , 8th edition , 1974 , p 112 10. Kuramoto S. , Itoh G. , and Kanno M. , Intergranular Fracture in Some Precipitation-Hardened Aluminum Alloys at Low Temperatures , Metall. Mater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... material difference, as listed in Table 4 . The “C” specimens failed at 83,020 and 168,567 cycles, respectively; whereas the “A” and “B” specimens did not fail after a total of 3 million cycles. Alloy PH 13-8 Mo is a martensitic precipitation hardenable stainless steel with a composition balanced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the loading was primarily tensile. Precipitants, many fractured, are visible in the dimples. 310.5×. Microstructural Analysis The wheel flange was forged from 2014-T6, a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy. Examination of the microstructure revealed no discrepancies ( Fig. 10 ). Fig. 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precipitation-hardened (PH) steel debris with gold plating that had transferred onto the metal surface during the failure event. In secondary electron imaging, topographical differences in the gold plating such as wrinkling are more evident when imaged at lower accelerating voltage (a) than at higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Multiple intergranular cracks • Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... with that of a new part. There was no significant difference between microstructures in the new and in the used stems. The microstructures were found to be typical of a martensitic precipitation-hardening stainless steel in the H900 condition. Because of the small size of the stems, hardness was the only...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... triple points• Reaction scales or internal precipitation• Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis• Loading direction may show failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Alloys Austenitic Stainless Steels Ferritic Stainless Steels Martensitic and Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels Nickel-Base Alloys Stainless Steels Copper and Copper Alloys Transition and Refractory Metals Titanium and Titanium Alloys Analysis of Hydrogen Embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A gear manufacturer experienced service problems with various gears and pinions that had worn prematurely or had fractured. All gears and pinions were forged from 1.60Mn-5Cr steel and were case hardened by pack carburizing. Gear Failure: One of the gears showed severe wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Embrittlement of Metals: A Primer for the Failure Analyst , J. Fail. Anal. Prevent. , Vol 8 , 2008 , p 289 – 307 10.1007/s11668-008-9133-x Austenitic Stainless Steels Ferritic Stainless Steels Martensitic and Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels Annealed Nickel Alloys Nickel-Base...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by Hatch [ 3 ], as he indicates that “the tensile properties of the aluminum–zinc–magnesium alloys in the as-cast (F temper) condition change rapidly during the first few weeks of room temperature aging, because of natural precipitation hardening. Additional hardening continues thereafter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to deformation failure is variability in response to heat treatment among parts in a given production lot. Certain alloys, particularly hardenable low-alloy steels and some precipitation-hardening alloys, can vary in their response to a specified heat treatment because of slight compositional variations from lot...