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pre-solidification

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... assembly. The failure analysis procedure showed that the failure of the exhaust diffuser assembly primarily occurred from pre-existing solidification-related cracks near the weld seam with the diffuser intake flange, whereas the eventual in-service failure of other components occurred by shear or tear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and composites) ( Ref 4 ). The first type, thermal or cooling stresses, results from rapid, inhomogeneous cooling through the T g range in amorphous polymers or through the solidification range in semicrystalline polymers. When cooling proceeds from the outer layer inward, large thermal gradients...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... “semi-killed” being applied to a product in which complete de-oxidation has not been effected. During the cooling of an ingot of fully killed steel, the normal contraction, which occurs on solidification results in the formation of a deep central cavity or pipe in the top of the ingot, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the leak developed and that the crack initiation site was a pre-existing discontinuity in the weld HAZ, suggest that the crack growth rate was slow enough to assure that a full circumferential fatigue crack would not develop before leaking was detected. Fig. 10 Stains on Fracture Surface Distant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microstructure of transverse section of right-side fork leg Figure 8 demonstrates the microstructure of the casting at a lower magnification and further illustrates the proliferation of voids within the casting. These defects represent pre-existing surfaces or cracks within the component, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... inclusions Incomplete fusion, or lack of fusion Incomplete penetration, or lack of penetration Misalignment between adjoining members Fissures or cracks during solidification, for example, crater cracks at weld terminations Underbead cracking Figure 3 ( Ref 4 ) and Fig. 4 ( Ref 3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... include: Underbead cracks Gas porosity Inclusions—slag, oxides, or tungsten metal Incomplete fusion Inadequate penetration Solidification cracks, liquation cracks Failure to meet strength, ductility, or toughness requirements is another cause for rejection of weldments. Details...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., and deliveries to the Brooklyn Navy Yard began on November 13. It was launched on June 19, 1915 ( 2 )( 3 ). The ship was 608 ft. long, had a beam of 106 ft., a full load displacement of 32,567 tons and a fuel oil capacity of 2332 tons ( 2 )( 3 ). Built as part of America's pre-World War I Navy modernization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in properties from one location to another depending on the solidification practice or thickness of the casting. Thus, the location of the test specimen within the component can also be significant. Therefore, results from samples from the casting itself may not be directly comparable. Other factors may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing liquids or gases Depending on the type of hydrogen-metal interaction, hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in many metals and is readily available during the production, processing, and service of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of nozzles 1 and 2 and continued down the shell. Drain grooves had been arc gouged at the nozzle sites, and examination of the fracture surface at the grooves revealed short, flat segments of fracture area indicative of pre-existing cracks. These features were consistent with crack indications found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., excessive warpage of the component will result in a separation between the component pad and the PCB and will result in an open joint during soldering ( Ref 20 – 22 ). As a result, after the solidification of the solder alloy, so-called cold solder joints are formed ( Fig. 9 ) ( Ref 23 ). Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and currently as Ref 3 . A later review of the behavior of hcp materials is available in Ref 7 . Some results from the pre-1940 work remain valid today, while other results, although perhaps valid for single crystals, must be modified to account for observations in polycrystalline materials. Much...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the behavior of hcp materials. Some results from the pre-1940 work remain valid today (2020), while other results, although perhaps valid for single crystals, must be modified to account for observations in polycrystalline materials. Much of the work accomplished up to 1940 was subsequently reexamined due...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stress concentrators can also be introduced during solidification of ingots from which forged shafts are made. Generally, these stress concentrators are internal discontinuities, such as pipe, segregation, porosity, shrinkage, and nonmetallic inclusions. Fractures also result from bearing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of subcritical crack growth in structures. Its magnitude depends on the applied nominal stress, geometry, and the crack size. Fracture mechanics methods are thus used to determine the crack-growth rates of pre-existing cracks under cyclic loading, where the subcritical crack growth from fatigue loading, da / dN...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2