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power-drop hammers

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to power-transmission gears. However, as pointed out by Lodge, spalling occurs in the hardened periphery of the striking face, with the core not playing any role in the process. Consequently, the use of high-hardenability steels for hammers should not pose any problems, and, in fact, as noted earlier...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... if the temperature of the blank is below about 1149 °C (2100 °F). Such blanks are also set aside, but can be re-inserted into the heating line after cooling. This forging was made in two steps. After the blank left the induction coil, it dropped through a chute and an operator placed it in a hammer forge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... where velocity is the major energy component (i.e., power hammer or drop hammer forging). Thus, the act of bringing the die halves together precisely can be a daunting task. As a result, the dimensional specifications for forgings will often take into account the difficulties in achieving some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... on a helical gear results in multiple teeth always being engaged. This difference in the number of teeth continuously engaged is of interest because it allows the helical gears to transmit slightly more power and much more smoothly. Fig. 1 This car transmission countershaft has five gears on it. Four...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at high velocity through a field of slower-moving droplets. High contact (“water hammer”) pressure is generated at each impact, in addition to which the liquid droplet then spreads laterally at a velocity substantially higher than the impact velocity ( Ref 2 ). Surface regions of impacted solids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Failures in boilers and other equipment taking place in power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source. The general procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure analyst...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for cooling can change over a period of time, through seasonal variations, or from an unpredictable accident. Long lead time in power-plant erection can have a considerable effect on the tubes. Heat exchangers may be completed and sent to the field years before the remainder of the plant is completed and put...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... normal load, but some situations can be complicated by the combined application of an oscillating normal load. This leads to a hammering effect, which is termed impact fatigue. In this case, the phase relationship between the two motions can be an important factor. Other terms that have been used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... particle size of talc can vary from 1.7 to 25 μm. The naturally occurring deposits are mined and mechanically processed using hammer or roll milling operations. Regrinding in an air classifying mill or a fluid energy mill produces particles of fine size. Talc has a platy or planar crystalline structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... used for cooling can change over a period of time, through seasonal variations, or from an unpredictable accident. Long lead time in power-plant erection can have a considerable effect on the tubes. Heat exchangers may be completed and sent to the field years before the remainder of the plant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... force also oscillating to the extent that the surfaces lose contact in each cycle. This leads to a hammering effect, which is termed impact fatigue . In this case, the phase relationship between the two motions can be an important factor. Other terms that have been used to designate fretting-type...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be missed if the observer is not vigilant. Inspection of the topographic features of the failed component should start with an unaided visual examination and proceed to higher and higher magnification. A magnifying glass followed by a low-power microscope is an invaluable aid in detection of small details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses pressure vessels, piping, and associated pressure-boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing plants. It begins by explaining the necessity of conducting a failure analysis, followed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... components, equipment, and structures has long been a serious safety and reliability concern for countless manufacturing, construction, and transportation industries, including automotive, aerospace, marine, power generation, chemical processing, and oil and gas. Furthermore, fatigue failures have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... leakages through the REB in high-power motors and generators, where P > 75 kW). In those cases, one should note that the Hertzian model used to calculate the Hertzian pressure, p H max , under the most highly loaded rolling element must be adapted. Due to the difference in Young’s moduli between both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4