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powder-fill ratio

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Applications and Typical Products In the simplest terms, all plastics processing techniques involve three key steps: fluidizing (plasticating), shaping, and solidification. Raw materials are typically sourced as pellets or powders (thermoplastic) or as monomeric liquid and cross-linking agent (thermoset...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and thermosetting resins are defined as follows. Thermoplastic Thermoplastic processing normally involves heating plastics granules, powders, or sheet to above the melting point of the polymer and then forcing the melt into a cooled mold until it is solid enough to handle. During this process, three...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of quartz and glass-filled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slid against SiC, SiO 2 , and CaCO 3 abrasives as a function of filler volume fraction. The performance clearly depends on the ratio of hardness of the abrasives to the filler, the interfacial adhesion of the filler with the matrix PMMA, and volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the statistical reproducibility/repeatability of commercial and proprietary testing laboratories is participation in the ASTM Proficiency Testing Program. This program involves a semiannual characterization of commonly reported (amorphous, semicrystalline, and mineral-filled or glass fiber-reinforced) commodity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... (6 miles) upstream from its mouth. The sand most likely came from the mouth of Brush Creek which is north of Gold Beach, OR (no record of washing the sand). The water-cement ratio was 0.53 and 3 to 6 pct entrained air was used. The compressive strength of the concrete after 60 days of curing was 42.7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., respectively; ϕ is the volume fraction; α is the CTE; B is the bulk modulus; and G is the shear modulus. Powder-filled epoxy resin systems have been developed for use as spacers between superconductive cables in synchrotron accelerators ( Ref 13 ). In this system, the part must withstand thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is to describe general root causes of failure that are associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. This article does not address powder metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... clean of such contaminants, because they are manufactured more to be particle-free than contaminant-free. Common surface contaminants on powder-free gloves include Si, Cl, Na, and Zn. Touching the area to be investigated with unclean tools can also introduce impurities onto the area of interest...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as compared to traditional ceramics). For the present purpose, technical ceramics are defined as fine-grain (as opposed to coarse) ceramics made of high-purity powders, oxides, and/or non oxides (same as for refractories), with very little batch-to-batch variability and as little as possible liquid-solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the sample during handling ( Ref 1 ). Even so-called clean-room gloves are not necessarily clean of such contaminants, because they are manufactured more to be particle free than contaminant free. Common surface contaminants on powder-free gloves include silicon, chlorine, sodium, and zinc. Touching the area...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in large steam turbines in Russia and Switzerland, owing to their high strength-to-weight ratio and better resistance to erosion and corrosion than 12% Cr steel. All of the commonly used blade alloys are protected from liquid-droplet impingement in the last blade row by local hardening (by flame...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... integrity of the polymer is lost (a melting process for semicrystalline polymers, or complete liquidlike flow above T g for linear, amorphous polymers). All polymers, ranging from simple, linear thermoplastics to filled, cross-linked resins, exhibit these different regimes of behavior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.../D N/D N/D 0.73 CaO % 2.65 CuO % 0.03 pH (1% Aqueous Extract) 6.1 4.7 5.7 — X-ray powder diffraction studies on the deposit from near the cracks showed the calcium sulphate to be of the anhydrite variety. The analyses did not reveal the presence of any substances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials is to employ variable-pressure SEM (VP-SEM) ( Ref 2 – 4 ). For this purpose, VP-SEM instruments operate with a specimen chamber filled with enough inert gas or vapor molecules at a pressure of ~10 to 2500 Pa to be ionized by the electron beam and neutralize charging. A valve system is designed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... These were mounted in iron powder filled epoxy for a transverse view. The samples were prepared on an automatic polisher by: (i) grinding sequentially on 120, 220, 500, 1000 grit SiC wet grinding paper (FEPA Standard P-Series); (ii) polishing with 6 micron diamond particles on a hard paper cloth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the progressive alteration or loss of material from a solid surface by liquid jets produced by collapsing bubbles in a liquid. When a bubble collapses, fluid rushes in to fill the void created by the bubble collapse, and these “jets” of liquid can produce very significant pressures on solid surfaces. These high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is measured as the sample is heated. Properties measured include the storage and loss moduli and tan δ (the ratio of the loss modulus to the storage modulus, which is a measure of the damping capability of a material). Measurements prior to gelation can be made on thermoset samples coated onto a wire mesh...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... discontinuities that are detectable by radiography include undercuts, longitudinal grooves, concavity at the weld root, incomplete filling of grooves, excessive penetration, offset or mismatch, burn-through, irregularities at electrode-change points, grinding marks, and electrode spatter. Surface irregularities...