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powder metallurgy steels

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of low carbon steel formed in a powder metallurgy process. A number of flaws were found including nonuniform wall thickness, poor geometric design with sharp corners as stress raisers, and incomplete sintering evidenced by unsintered particles. These were determined to be the primary cause of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and sulfur treatments for sulfide, alumina, and silicate inclusions ( Ref 19 ). Hard inclusions in the workpiece material can abrade the cutting tool material ( Ref 20 ). Inclusions, porosity, and oxide films in powder metallurgy steels can reduce their machinability, but closing the pores, increased...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... additive manufacturing processes by powder-bed fusion, wire-feed electron beam, and directed-energy (laser) deposition processes. Source: Ref 5 Metallic feedstock for fusion-based AM is typically of weldable, powder metallurgy, and castable alloys that include aluminum alloys, cobalt-chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
..., Ohio ( 1968 ). 4. Bishop H. F. , Ackerline C. G. and Pellini W. S. , “Metallurgy and Mechanics of Hot Tearinq,” Trans. Amer. Foundrymen's Society , Vol. 60 , pp. 818 – 833 ( 1952 ). 5. Briggs C. W. , The Metallurgy of Steel Castings , McGraw-Hill Book Company...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The microstructure of the metal in the impeller exhibited scattered porosity and carbide particles and appeared to be a sintered powder metallurgy compact. Metallographic examination of a section through the damaged splines and of a section through the adjacent undamaged part of the same splines disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract In 1975, a manufacturer was awarded a contract to produce modular air-traffic control towers for the U.S. Navy. The specifications called for painted steel siding, but the manufacturer convinced the Navy to substitute aluminum-bonded-to-plywood panels that were provided by a supplier...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-Si-B coatings are compared with type 304L stainless steel in Fig. 16 . Fig. 16 Behavior comparison of plasma-sprayed Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B powder with wrought type 304L stainless steel in vibratory cavitation Repairs Made with Polymers Over the years, elastomers and other polymers, either...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen-ion activ- ity PI polyimide PM preventive maintenance P/M powder metallurgy PMMA polymethyl methacrylate POD probability of detection PP polypropylene PPS polyphenylene sulfide PREN pitting resistance equivalent number PS polystyrene PSO point surface origin PSZ partially stabilized zirconia PTFE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to understand that there has been a huge change in industrial and commercial steel gear metallurgy since the 1950s. Automotive gears have been surface (case) hardened since the 1920s, because harder gears can transmit more power with less wear. However, due to the fear of tooth breakage, the prevailing thought...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is to describe general root causes of failure that are associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. This article does not address powder metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... typical for the material. The data were used to determine that the composition and metallurgy of the PH steel were adequate and in this case had not contributed to failure. Fig. 7 Precipitate in a precipitation-hardened (PH) steel fracture surface, labeled as Spectrum 1, and energy-dispersive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., stainless steel, age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during configuration design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... options to a broad category of material. Metals can be subdivided into categories such as carbon steel, stainless steel, and copper alloys. Plastics can be subdivided into specific classes of thermoplastics and thermosets, such as polycarbonates and polyesters. Level IV: Select a specific material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: burning or incipient melting can also occur in extreme cases. Figure 31(a) shows an end view of a powder metallurgy die component made from AISI D2 tool steel that melted and deformed due to highly excessive localized temperatures during heat treatment. The microstructure in this region ( Fig. 31b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... component made from AISI D2 tool steel that melted and deformed due to highly excessive localized temperatures during heat treatment. The microstructure in this region ( Fig. 31b ) shows the melted region, heat-affected zone, and base microstructure. Fig. 31 AISI D2 powder metallurgy die component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the fusion line these cracks can occur or how far around the weld they can extend, and they can form by either a hot or cold cracking mechanism. Occurrence of Weld Metal Cracking in Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Although weld metal cracking can occur in all metallurgies, it is beyond the scope...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... an example of a brittle fracture in a low-carbon steel examined in this manner. Figure 1 also shows a LM image of the fracture profile, a LM image of a replica of the fracture, SEM images of the fracture and a replica of the fracture, and a TEM replica of the fracture. Although Zapffe used bright-field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating. Figure 1 shows the surface of quenched and tempered A2 tool steel (59 HRC) cut...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... investigation may require several experts in different disciplines of engineering, physical science, metallurgy, or an understanding of corrosion science and engineering. High-temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating...