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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the Ingot Many flaws in wrought products can be traced back to the pouring and solidification of hot metal in molds during production of ingot. Except for forged powder metal components, the starting material in bulk working is a slab, ingot, billet, and so forth produced by casting into stationary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at specific locations on a build platform or part. The materials in the AM jetting processes involved controlled deposition of curable polymers or atomized melt (material jetting) or powder deposition with binder resins (binder jetting). Other AM technologies emerged with the development of selective laser...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tools and dies and the causes of their failures. It discusses the failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are important to nearly all manufacturing processes, but is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) component that cracked during quenching due to the presence of soft spots (arrows) on the surface. These soft spots were revealed by cold etching the surface with 10% aqueous nitric acid. Original magnification: 0.4× Fig. 16 (a) AISI O1 tool steel ring forging that cracked during quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear of metal parts are also discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on the influence of metallurgical factors and fabrication practices on the fatigue properties of materials, as well as the effects of surface coatings. abrasive wear adhesive wear axial fatigue bending fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, additive manufacture, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., stainless steel, age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during configuration design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... direction. Almost all materials, save perhaps parts made by powder metallurgy processes, demonstrate anisotropic behavior. Anisotropic behavior means that the mechanical properties are different in different directions. For the common wrought products such as bar, extrusion, plate, sheet, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of an Improper Material Conclusions Recommendations Influence of Metallurgical Factors Internal Discontinuities Example 16: Fatigue Cracking of a Forged Grade 4337 Steel Master Connecting Rod Because of Nonmetallic Inclusions Example 14: Fatigue Fracture of a Grade 8640 Steel Shaft from a Fuel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for sulfide, alumina, and silicate inclusions ( Ref 19 ). Hard inclusions in the workpiece material can abrade the cutting tool material ( Ref 20 ). Inclusions, porosity, and oxide films in powder metallurgy steels can reduce their machinability, but closing the pores, increased cleanliness, and sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... position, and its relationship to surface topographic features, were examined and recorded by magnetic rubber and high-resolution dental rubber replicating materials. Corrosion deposits on keyway surfaces and within the crack were collected with acetate foil replicas applied and then stripped from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...., American Society for Metals , 1984 , p 29 – 41 3. Raymond L. , Ed., Hydrogen Embrittlement Testing , STP 543, American Society for Testing and Materials , 1972 4. Raymond L. , Evaluation of Hydrogen Embrittlement , Corrosion , Vol 13 , ASM Handbook , ASM International...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forms of hydrogen damage are generally more common within particular alloy systems. Hydrogen damage in one form or another can severely restrict the use of certain materials. This article is divided into three parts. The first part is an introduction to the general forms of hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and poor weld bead geometry from deficiencies in welding Inclusions Interfaces in layer-type bonded materials (applied by cladding, rolling, electroplating, spraying, brazing, or soldering) Case-core interfaces in case-hardened steels Severe surface irregularities, such as rolling or forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... commonly associated with the development of SCC, although not all, and numerous case studies. engineering alloys metallic components SCC mitigation stress-corrosion cracking CORROSION is the deterioration of a material due to its environment. Although corrosion is often thought...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 15% nital solution. Dimensions: 81 mm (3.2 in.) as measured on vessel outside diameter (OD) surface; 56 mm (2.2 in.) as measured on vessel inside diameter (ID) surface Chemical composition of the forged nozzle material, believed to be SA350, grade LF2, was consistent with that specified...