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potential measurements

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Potential sources of hydrogen are considered as are remedial measures for controlling hydrogen content in steels. steel coils delayed hydrogen cracking austenitic stainless steel grain facets stepwise microcracking inert gas fusion analysis stacking fault energy 0.1%C-14.7%Cr-9.3%Mo-0.2%Si (low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract One of 14 vertical radiant tubes (RA 333 alloy) in a heat-treating furnace failed when a hole about 5 x 12.5 cm (2 x 5 in.) corroded completely through the tube wall. The tube measured 183 cm (72 in.) in length and 8.9 cm (3 in.) in OD and had a wall thickness of about 3 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to prevent interferences with potential mapping and other test procedures. A grid was painted on the beam after sandblasting. This grid measured 15.2 cm (6 in) × 15.2 cm (6 in) and was applied to the east and west beam faces. A 15.2 cm (6 in) × 12.7 cm (5 in) grid was applied to the bottom face (original...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... mechanism based on the metallurgical investigation without carrying out a series of potential measurement experiments to prove it. The predominant corrosion mechanism appeared to be crevice corrosion related, with the corrosion being driven by the retention of water by the cover material around the wire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... to distinguish/identify the occurrence of this corrosion mechanism based on the metallurgical investigation without carrying out a series of potential measurement experiments to prove it. The predominant corrosion mechanism appeared to be crevice corrosion related, with the corrosion being driven...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., considering the location of the corrosion. It was not possible to distinguish/identify the occurrence of this corrosion mechanism based on the metallurgical investigation without carrying out a series of potential measurement experiments to prove it. The predominant corrosion mechanism appeared to be crevice...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based on seawater or other standard electrolytes are worthwhile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and after installation. These measurements can give insight if the proper torque specs were used during installation or for potential bolt damage. UT measurement tools are also available to detect fluid level inside containers if other fill measurement options are unavailable due to damage or hazardous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... To establish the effectiveness of the CP system of the failed tank and to find out the possible role of stray current in the failure, evaluation of external CP systems of the failed as well as neighboring tanks were carried out. The potential readings were measured in the following sequence: Readings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-steam dried steel panels. After each sample was evaluated via EIS, it was further evaluated via cyclic polarization testing. In this test, the open circuit potential (OCP) of the sample with respect to the reference electrode is initially measured. The potential is then lowered slightly, making...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of organic nutrients to carbon dioxide. Under anaerobic conditions, electron acceptors other than oxygen can be used. Figure 1 illustrates the range of pH and redox potential where anaerobic forms of microbial metabolism tend to be found ( Ref 18 ). Fig. 1 The pH and oxidation reduction potential...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Repeatability and reproducibility of stress results Table 1 Repeatability and reproducibility of stress results Measurement No. Stress, ksi Repeatability Reproducibility 1 −62.8 −62.9 2 −62.9 −61.1 3 −63.2 −63.0 4 −62.6 −63.7 5 −61.4 −63.8 Average...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cannot be monitored, so how should they be handled? Sometimes, no routine cyclic measure can prevent failures with intolerable consequences. What should be done in these cases? When properly applied, RCM offers rigorous and defensible answers to each of these questions. Its approach...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-related failures Brittle fracture Background During a scheduled inspection and maintenance outage, a steam turbine rotor that had been in service for more than 30 years was nondestructively examined. Numerous potential flaws were observed, and a fracture-mechanics-based analysis showed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , 1989 , p 11 – 70 55. Berkley S.G. , Patents U.S. 5,490,195 and 5,625,664 56. Berkley S.G. et al. , “ Residual Stress Measurement and Its Application to Achieve Predicted Full Life Potential of Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) Limited Engine Disks ,” Ninth International Symposium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the observed fracture topography was not present. Fig. 9 Micrograph of the failed right-hand bolt microstructure (Kroll's Reagent; 350× magnification at 6.6 in. width). The duplex microstructure consists of elongated alpha (light) in a beta (dark) matrix. Microhardness measurements were taken...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... that is potentially objectionable to the customer. During testing and at the evaluation periods for the stop/start tests, no increase in noise or loss in cooling capacity can be heard or seen. Typically the compressors are evaluated at several periods or numbers of cycles including 125K, 250K, and 500K cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of pipeline failures and the procedures used to investigate them. The use of fracture mechanics in failure investigations and in developing remedial measures is also reviewed. References References 1. “Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe,” API RP5L1, American Petroleum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that the failure analyst must keep in mind. These considerations include the test location and orientation, the use of raw material certifications, the certifications potentially not representing the hardware, and the determination of valid test results. The article introduces the concepts of various mechanical...