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porous media method

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... procedures , pt. 1 20-60-00, ( 1994 ) 4. Canadian Specification 31-GP-103M , “Conversion Coating, Heavy Phosphate For Iron And Steel.” , ( 1989 ) 5. ASTM-D-3359 , Standard Test Methods for measuring Adhesion by Tape Test , ( 1990 ) 6. Military Specification MIL-C-16173E , Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... business interruptions. This article describes the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) required by that material. Such curves would be generated for each material of interest in the system. Additional information on the method for generating these curves is available in ASTM G 5 ( Ref 5 ). The scan rate for potential must be chosen such that sufficient time is allowed for completion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract The various methods of furnace, torch, induction, resistance, dip, and laser brazing are used to produce a wide range of highly reliable brazed assemblies. However, imperfections that can lead to braze failure may result if proper attention is not paid to the physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be generated for each material of interest in the system. Additional information on the method for generating these curves is available in ASTM G 5 ( Ref 5 ). The scan rate for potential must be chosen such that sufficient time is allowed for completion of electrical charging at the interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and material factors that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of corrosion-control methods, equipment, and services; cost of labor attributed to corrosion management; cost of use of more expensive materials to lessen corrosion damage; and cost of lost revenue, loss of reliability, and loss of capital due to corrosion deterioration. Only selected industrial sectors were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... gases (e.g., metal-oxygen-carbon-nitrogen, under a wide range of partial pressures). These diagrams, the equivalent to Pourbaix diagrams for studying corrosion of a solid in aqueous media, are used to predict the direction of reactions and the phases present. From thermodynamic calculations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 16 Magnetic iron oxide 2.9 20 Silicate scale (porous) 0.09 0.6 Steel 24.5–44.7 170–310 (a) Source: Ref 1 . (b) Source Ref 2 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic steels Table 5 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... … … … FeS 2 (c) (d) (d) (a) Determined by combustion methods. (b) Determined by gravimetric methods. (c) Determined by x-ray diffraction. (d) Layer too thin and fragile to measure its thickness Results of longitudinal tensile test Table 3 Results of longitudinal tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...), and eutectic ZnCl 2 /NaCl (melting point, 262 °C, or 504 °F) ( Ref 40 ) may cause rapid corrosion of carbon steel, if present. Attack by halogens at elevated temperatures occurs through the volatility of the reaction products. Oxides that form in combustion gases are porous and prone to fracture. Stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nondestructive testing techniques are applicable, what level of metallurgical testing should be performed, and, finally, what quality-assurance documentation is needed. A teamwork approach between the designer and foundry (and, where possible, the ultimate user) is the best (and lowest-cost) method of avoiding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of TEM replication methods and became commonplace after the commercial introduction of the SEM in approximately 1965. A flat, brittle fracture can be examined with the light microscope by orienting the fracture perpendicularly to the optical axis. It is best to start with a low-power objective; long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-8_17 9. “ Standard Test Methods for Estimating the Depth of Decarburization of Steel Specimens ,” E 1077, Vol 03.01 , American Society for Testing and Materials 10. Sedriks A.J. and Mulhearn T.O. , Austenitic Manganese Steel: Structure and Properties of Decarburized Layer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... parts or other porous materials. Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection methods depend on sound waves of very high frequency being transmitted through metal and reflected at any boundary such as a metal/air boundary at the surface of the metal, or a metal/crack boundary at a discontinuity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... begins with discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... B 100 Cavities with generally rounded, smooth walls perceptible to the naked eye (blowholes, pinholes) B 110 Class B 100 cavities internal to the casting, not extending to the surface, discernible only by special methods, machining, or fracture of the casting B 111 (a) Internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4