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porosity

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An unacceptable degree of porosity was identified in several closure welds on stainless steel containers for plutonium-bearing materials. The pores developed in the weld tie-in region due to gas trapped by the weld pool during the closure process. This paper describes the efforts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... by metallographic examination to be case carburized. The case was found to be martensite with small spheroidal carbides while the core consisted of martensite plus some ferrite. The fracture was revealed to be related to shrinkage porosity. Tempering was revealed to be probably limited to about 150 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... low-alloy steel conforming to ASTM A 148, grade 150-125. The crack was found to have originated along the lower surface initially penetrating a region of shrinkage porosity. It was observed that cracking then propagated in tension through sound metal and terminated in a shear lip at the top of the eye...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... section through the defect indicated shrinkage porosity. This defect was found to interconnect the water jacket and the exhaust gas flow chamber. No cracks were found by magnetic-particle inspection. The gray iron cylinder head had a hardness of 229 HRB on the surface of the bottom deck...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... internal reflectors, indicating the presence of slag inclusions and porosity. A low-carbon steel flux-cored filler metal was used in repair welding the crankshaft, without any preweld or postweld heating. This resulted in the formation of martensite in the HAZ. The repair weld failed by brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... amount of porosity. Electron fractography established that the cast connection on the left side failed by brittle fracture. Metallographic examination showed poor weld quality in the casting-to-tube joint. Evidence found supports the conclusions that the drawbar fractured in fatigue, which originated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... at the hole area showed that the porosity extended a considerable distance into the pipe wall. Metallographic examination revealed a graphite structure distribution expected in centrifugally cast iron with a hypoeutectic carbon equivalent. Chemical analyses of a nonporous sample had a composition typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Narrow-headed arrows show porosity internal to the casting. The wide-head arrows show the ratchet marks—an indication here that the crack has started in multiple locations along the inside surface. Fig. 2 The large-headed arrows show surface imperfections. The smaller arrows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The absence of corrosion products confirms that the surface here has been damaged by cavitation. Fig. 6 Microsection from a cavitation zone. 100 × From the results of the investigation it can be concluded that the cause of the damage is the porosity at the junction between back wall and blades...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... with a steel which is cast, carburized, quenched, and tempered. The structure was generally satisfactory, except for the presence of severe shrinkage porosity. It was concluded that the presence of shrinkage porosity in critical areas was the primary cause of fracture. Extremely high hardness indicating a lack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0089696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... with the initiation of cracks at slag inclusions and sharp fillets in weld-repair areas in the casting. The weld-repair procedures were unsatisfactory. The cracks propagated in a fatigue mode. he casting quality was judged unacceptable because of the presence of excessive shrinkage porosity. It was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 A classical “gas” pore in a zinc die casting. It has been opened to the surface of the part by the buffing operation performed prior to electroplating. Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrograph of shrinkage porosity in a steel weld Fig. 3 Detail of shrinkage porosity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the failure began with the initiation of cracks at slag inclusions and sharp fillets in weld-repair areas in the casting. The weld-repair procedures were unsatisfactory. The cracks propagated in a fatigue mode. he casting quality was judged unacceptable because of the presence of excessive shrinkage porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to account for the fracture, but there were indications of excessive porosity in the nut. The fracture had occurred through the root of the first thread that was adjacent to the flange of the tap. It was found that the nut from the cold-water tap failed by SCC. Apparently, sufficient stress was developed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... favorable electrode to avoid porosity, careful termination of all welds to avoid formation of notches, and completion of all welds before other sections of the column are erected. Columns (structural) Ductile brittle transition Welding electrodes ASTM A36 Joining-related failures During...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0089543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Threads of a bone screw (Co-Cr-Mo alloy, type ASTM F75) had broken off, and other threads had cracked. 15x sectioning showed porosity, and 155x magnification showed gas holes, segregation, and dissolved oxides. This supports the conclusion that manufacturing defects caused the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and drilled for bolting on a heavy steel plate. The tank was filled to a record height. In mid-Jan the temperature dropped to -31 deg C (-23 deg F), with high winds. The tank split open and collapsed. The welding used the shielded metal arc process with E6010 electrodes, which could lead to weld porosity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of brittle overload fracture due to excessive iron-zinc phase and gross porosity. These conditions acted synergistically to reduce the strength of the material. The composition was nonstandard, and the inherent brittleness suggested that it was unlikely that this material was an intentional proprietary alloy...