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porosity

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... steel conforming to ASTM A 148, grade 150-125. The crack was found to have originated along the lower surface initially penetrating a region of shrinkage porosity. It was observed that cracking then propagated in tension through sound metal and terminated in a shear lip at the top of the eye...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... by metallographic examination to be case carburized. The case was found to be martensite with small spheroidal carbides while the core consisted of martensite plus some ferrite. The fracture was revealed to be related to shrinkage porosity. Tempering was revealed to be probably limited to about 150 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... reflectors, indicating the presence of slag inclusions and porosity. A low-carbon steel flux-cored filler metal was used in repair welding the crankshaft, without any preweld or postweld heating. This resulted in the formation of martensite in the HAZ. The repair weld failed by brittle fracture, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... through the defect indicated shrinkage porosity. This defect was found to interconnect the water jacket and the exhaust gas flow chamber. No cracks were found by magnetic-particle inspection. The gray iron cylinder head had a hardness of 229 HRB on the surface of the bottom deck. The microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An unacceptable degree of porosity was identified in several closure welds on stainless steel containers for plutonium-bearing materials. The pores developed in the weld tie-in region due to gas trapped by the weld pool during the closure process. This paper describes the efforts...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 60 Dendritic shrinkage porosity in aluminum alloy A356. Shrinkage porosity is a common imperfection in cast components and also a common location for fracture initiation. (a) Fracture surface from a fatigue specimen. 30×. (b) Same specimen as in part (a) but at lower magnification (13 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Porosity in the welds More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 SEM photograph of the peeled off nugget surface showing shrinkage porosity, insufficient melting and penetration, and gas evolution (which could be due to presence of moisture, oil, etc. at the interface) at the interface More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Microstructure of the weld showing (a) shrinkage porosity in the nugget, (b) intergranular cracks emanating from the fusion zone, W1 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Section from a failed cylinder-head exhaust port. The shrinkage porosity allowed engine coolant to leak into the exhaust port. Not polished, not etched. 0.9× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Wire-stretching jaws that broke because of shrinkage porosity and low ductility of case and core. The jaws, sand cast from low-alloy steel, were used to stretch wire for prestressed concrete beams. (a) Two pairs of movable jaws. 0.7×. (b) Two pairs of stationary jaws. 0.7×. (c) and (d More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Narrow-headed arrows show porosity internal to the casting. The wide-head arrows show the ratchet marks—an indication here that the crack has started in multiple locations along the inside surface. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 a). Porosity of the low side of the interface, dark field illumination. 50× b). Change in surface profile and porosity on the low side of the interface, oblique reflected illumination. 50× c). Change in surface profile at edge of laked area, Nomarski Interference Contrast. 150× d More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrograph of shrinkage porosity in a steel weld More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Detail of shrinkage porosity in steel weldment. Note that the secondary dendrite arms are spaced at 90° in this cubic crystal structure material, unlike snowflakes formed from water, which prefer a hexagonal crystal habit. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Pipe type porosity is created when there are local hot spots in the casting. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Shrinkage porosity at bolt-hole bosses in a ductile-iron cylinder head More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Wire-stretching jaws that broke because of shrinkage porosity and low ductility of case and core. The jaws, sand cast from low-alloy steel, were used to stretch wire for prestressed concrete beams. (a) Two pairs of movable jaws. 0.7×. (b) Two pairs of stationary jaws. 0.7×. (c) and (d More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 25 Porosity in GMAW core-plated silicon steel laminations. 100× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 26 Pulsed GMAW spot weld showing porosity in dissimilar metal weldment; a copper-nickel alloy to a carbon-manganese steel using an ERNiCu-7 (Monel 60) electrode. Etchant, 50% nitric-50% acetic acid. 4× More