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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the failure distribution. By this means the early life characteristics of a component population can be predicted even though no failures were experienced among the samples at an early stage. For example, at 30,000 cycles, the predicted failure rate is 6%. Had the test been concluded at 30,000 cycles, we...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., in the case of Fig. 16 , the mean stress cannot be simply considered as the mean applied stress but must be considered as the superposition of the mean applied stress and the residual stress. Thus, a nonzero residual stress offsets the mean stress about which the stress amplitude cycles. This principle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of micro- and/or macroplastic deformations and is important, whether the superposition of residual, loading, or mean stresses exceeds the monotonic or cyclic yield strength. The fatigue limit of high-strength materials is generally lower than the cyclic yield strength, whereas in low-strength materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... drive shafts, each of which had failed, were examined at the site inspection. Figure 2 shows a close-up view of what was labeled as Design 1. This design had the largest population (16) but was not found among the six failures in the transit agency’s possession at the time of the inspection. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Indicator Comments Microbial population Adenosine triphosphate Activity, number of microbes On site Leading Fast; underestimates dormant microorganisms Sessile or planktonic Enzyme activity: Hydrogenase Adenosine-5′- phosphosulfate reductase Potential for H 2 use On site Leading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... rates, which means cracks extend from a detectable size to a through-wall crack in a relatively short time. When fatigue cracks grow large enough to be visible to NDE, it is likely that the component is near the end of its useful life. TU Electric has determined that an inspection program designed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., because at the completion of every test, an accept/reject decision must be made regarding the suitability of the component for future service. This has led to some important semantic issues, and the words defect, flaw, discontinuity , and imperfection have distinct meanings in the NDE literature. Again...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The maintenance facility used 3/4-inch (19 mm) wrenches produced by a single manufacturer which were removed from tool boxes and store stock. The nonfailed wrench population was visually inspected for any obvious defects and none were found. To determine the cause of the failure, 15 wrenches along with the failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Acceptable A29SE3 3 29 64 Acceptable G6SW2 4 3 8 Acceptable G27SE2 5 29 64 Acceptable W3 4 7 16 Acceptable G1 4 23 64 Rejectable Weld Symbol Designation A6SE4, for example, means: W3, for example, means...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) compute the sample mean K ¯ and sample standard deviation s K , described in the section “Uncertainties in Structural Parameters” in this article. Here K ¯ = 5.54 , s K = 3.45; (2) let the sample mean and standard deviation equal the population mean and standard deviation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). In these profiles, the mean peak-to-trough distance had values in the range of 50 ± 5 μm. An SEM-based method for nondestructive profile generation involves the use of the SEM line scan mode ( Ref 71 ). In this method, a narrow contamination line is deposited on the specimen fracture surface using the line scan...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The discipline of failure analysis has evolved and matured, as it has been employed and formalized as a means for failure prevention. Consistent with the recent trend toward increased accountability and responsibility, its purpose has been extended to include determining which party may be liable for losses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... line cables help in raising the rig. The sling line cables, although independent, act simultaneously to lift the rig. They operate in such a way that a number of sheaves need to be engaged to facilitate the movement of the ropes. If by any means, one of the cables jumps over the sheaves, the entire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a general engineering tool for enhancing product quality and failure prevention. The discipline of failure analysis has evolved and matured, as it has been employed and formalized as a means for failure prevention. A thorough analysis will typically also include determination regarding which party...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... created the National Agency for Health Surveillance of Brazil (ANVISA) to promote health safety for the population through sanitary control of production and trade of medical and odontological products and services, including medical devices. 19 Unlike similar agencies found in the U.S. and the U.K...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and Danger There is substantial confusion about the meaning of words such as hazard, risk, and danger. Webster ( Ref 3 ) defines danger as: “liability to injury, pain, damage or loss; hazard; peril; risk.” Webster makes some distinction by further saying: “Hazard arises from something fortuitous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... section which had a composition apparently different than either the original or the known patch concrete. Percentages of grains in the five most populated categories were more than one standard deviation from the mean values in these categories in the original concrete. Not enough grains were counted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the materials and processes used to fabricate it. The failure analyst also needs to understand how the product was used and the culture in which it was used. Communication skills are a must. For example, when you ask a question, do you know for certain what “yes” means? In some cultures, “yes” means “I heard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the internal pressure in the pipe. There is no simple control for external SCC, because one of the three conditions necessary for cracking must be prevented. This means keeping the cathodic potential outside of the critical range for cracking, which is difficult, if not impossible, at all points on a long...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... interaction with the particle. One such model was developed by Brown and Stobbs ( Ref 33 ) and is discussed in the Appendix to this article. Another model, developed by Le Roy ( Ref 34 ), takes into account that different sources of void formation lead to a dual population of voids. As noted, particles...