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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Deposits of other metals can provide information on the contacting material, as do deposits of paint or other coatings. Evidence of wear can be very important, indicating poor lubrication, for example, or excessive loading. Evidence of surface heating, as indicated by discoloration, may relate to rubbing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... crack, as shown in Fig. 42 It is apparent that the particle is primarily copper, while small amounts of lead and tin were also recorded. The explanation is that the copper precipitated from molten Babbitt metal, a result of intermittent lubrication breakdown and subsequent overheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Aluminum or chromium oxide particles are added to keep the head clean. The substrate can be an aluminum alloy or a polymeric material usually polyethylene terepthalate. The disk drives are accordingly classified as hard or flexible. Recently 3.5″ or smaller disks have been introduced with glass substrates...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., wear study is separated as elastomers, thermosets, glassy thermoplastics, and semicrystalline thermoplastics. The article describes the effects of environment and lubricant on the wear failures of polymers. It presents a case study on nylon as a tribological material. The article explains the wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The IR and FTIR analyses are performed on a polymer for identification and to ensure that there are no other undesirable polymeric compounds present in the system. The IR analysis also identifies any lubricant and unintentional organic compounds that could have been inadvertently introduced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polymers unidirectional FRP composites wear performance REINFORCED POLYMERS are used extensively in applications where resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear failure is important for materials selection. Polymers form a special class of materials because of their self-lubricity, which allows them...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-speed lubricated sliding bearings Corrosive wear Wear conjoint with corrosion, as in a metal bushing versus a shaft immersed in water Rolling wear occurs when two bodies roll one over the other. Some sliding always occurs in the contact region. Wear may occur by rolling-sliding or by surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alternatively, evaluating how the part failed and why it failed, requires a scientific approach and a broad knowledge of polymeric materials. Fig. 1 Steps for performing failure analysis. The steps are the same regardless of the material Plastic components can fail via many different modes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... assessments. The optimal time to obtain chemical information on corrosion products, surface contamination, greases, lubricants, and fluid media is as soon as the failure is discovered. Having a well-trained analyst, technician, or engineer is critical in maintaining the integrity of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Both forms of liquid-impact erosion are discussed in detail in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18 of ASM Handbook ( Ref 1 , 2 ). Most of what is presented in those articles is not repeated here; instead, emphasis in this article is on manifestations of damage and on ways...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... device in the metallographic laboratory is the abrasive cutoff machine. All abrasive-wheel sectioning should be performed wet. An ample flow of coolant, with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of polymeric and ceramic materials are also included. (Fractography of electronic components is addressed in detail in Ref 1 .) In summary, the following are key features in distinguishing between monotonic versus fatigue fracture and ductile versus brittle fractures (on either a macroscale or microscale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is strengthened by several elements with high concentrations of passive elements, can be a promising candidate ( Ref 65 , 66 ). Ceramic and polymeric materials can have superior performance in specific corrosive wear environments. Both materials are generally corrosion resistant. However, because polymeric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-wheel sectioning should be performed wet. An ample flow of coolant, with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be entirely prevented by use of a proper lubricant. Wear rates depend on the type of contact and lubrication conditions. Analysis of lubricants is discussed in the article “Lubricant Analysis” in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, Volume 18 of ASM Handbook. Galling is considered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials , CRC Press , 1992 23. Kosel T.H. , Solid Particle Erosion , Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Vol 18 , ASM Handbook , Blau P.J. , Ed., ASM International , 1992 , p 199 – 213 24. Lansdown A.R...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is discussed in more detail in the article “Corrosive Wear” in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18 of ASM Handbook. References 1. Dunn D.J. , Metal Removal Mechanisms Comprising Wear in Mineral Processing , Wear of Materials , Ludema K.C. , Ed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... characteristics that discriminate structural polymers from metals. One of the most important differences between polymers and other materials is the statistical nature of their molecular chains. A distribution of chain lengths is a consequence of the random nature of most polymerization reactions. Thus, polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... method allows one to obtain useful chemical-state information from insulating samples. Common materials analyzed by XPS include metals, lubricants, semiconductors, metal oxides, glasses, ceramics, catalysts, plastics/polymers, coatings/thin films, and paper. Because the technique is so flexible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that a nonapproved lubricant was added to the questioned fastener lot during installation. In fastener design where tension preload is controlled by torque measurement, the general relationship T = KDP is often used, where T is torque, K is a torque coefficient including a friction factor, D...