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polymeric composites

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the abrasive and adhesive wear failure of several types of reinforced polymers, including particulate-reinforced polymers, short-fiber reinforced polymers (SFRP), continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), particulate-filled composites...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Polytetrafluoroethylene itself has also been used as filler for other polymeric systems such as PE. Figure 13 gives the wear rate of PTFE, and some of its composites when slid against hard metallic surfaces. For surface-treated PTFE (such as γ-irradiation), the situation may be different. Evidence shows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The weight of the evaluated material can decrease due to volatilization or decomposition or increase because of gas absorption or chemical reaction. Thermogravimetric analysis can provide valuable information regarding the composition and thermal stability of polymeric materials. The obtained data can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... kg lb Retailer 1 72 28 Isoprene Polypropylene 123 271 Retailer 2 73.5 26.5 Isoprene Polypropylene 92.3 203 Original supplier A 19 81 Isoprene Polypropylene 65 143 Original supplier B 19 81 Isoprene Polypropylene 47.7 105 Composition of deteriorating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (DSC) Heat of polymerization, fusion, T g , T m Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Composition, weight loss with time or temperature Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) Elastic modulus, loss modulus, tan delta Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) Penetration temperature, expansion coefficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Heat of polymerization, fusion, T g , T m Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Composition, weight loss with time or temperature Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) Elastic modulus, loss modulus, tan delta Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) Penetration temperature, expansion coefficient...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A section of clear polymeric tubing failed while in service. The failed sample had been used in a chemical transport application. The tubing had also been exposed to periods of elevated temperature as part of the operation. The tubing was specified to be a polyvinyl chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A helicopter tail rotor blade spar failed in fatigue, allowing the blade to separate during flight. The 2014-T652 aluminum alloy blade had a hollow spar shank filled with lead wool ballast and a thermoset polymeric seal. A corrosion pit was present at the origin of the fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) is in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances of polymeric and ceramic materials are also included. Fractography of electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and composition Rolling-contact fatigue appears similar to wear in early stages Multiple intergranular fissures covered with reaction scale Grain faces may show porosity Metallographic inspection, 50 to 1000× (cross section) Grain distortion and flow near fracture Irregular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is applicable to metallic materials, and only general information regarding creep-related failures of polymeric materials is given. The article also reviews various factors related to creep behavior and associated failures of materials used in high-temperature applications. The complex effects of creep-fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the resistance values, resulting in circuit nonperformance at inappropriate times. The low termination strength was attributed to deficient chip design for the intended materials and manufacturing process and exacerbated by the presence of polymeric contamination at the termination interface. Delaminating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a cobalt-chromium or titanium alloy; a polymeric wear surface made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, ASTM F648); and a metal tibial component to which the polyethylene is attached. The femoral component articulates against the UHMWPE tibial cup, which in turn is anchored to the tibia...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... on a substrate by an organic resinous binder and dispersed uniformly in the mix by additions of organic dispersants. Aluminum or chromium oxide particles are added to keep the head clean. The substrate can be an aluminum alloy or a polymeric material usually polyethylene terepthalate. The disk drives...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was photographic silver recovery. Glass fiber reinforced composites Hydrolisis Oxidation Glass-reinforced nylon 12 Environmental cracking (plastics) A component of a water filtration unit failed while being used in service for approximately eight months. The filter system had been installed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., presence of corrosion products, the geometry of fracture surfaces, or inaccessibility of the component making chemical analysis a challenge. The investigator must take every precaution to avoid delivering misleading compositional information, and engineering/scientific judgement is key in providing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes some of the common elemental composition analysis methods and explains the concept of referee and economy test methods in failure analysis. It discusses different types of microchemical analyses, including backscattered electron imaging, energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the mild wear region at low values of both contact pressure and sliding velocity. The friction material is a composite containing various ingredients, such as oxides, carbides, graphite, fillers, and metallic particles or fibers, held together by a polymeric (usually phenolic) resin. Mild wear results from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at 10,000× to 2 mm (0.08 in.) at 10×, is more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than for light microscopy. The variety of signals generated by an electron beam impinging on the surface of a sample provides opportunities for enhanced imaging to reveal topographical and compositional differences...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the versatility of the instrument. Typical SEMs have the ability to deliver clear, high-magnification images while also providing the user with the ability to obtain chemical compositions from samples. Recent developments ( Ref 2 ) also have greatly increased the capability of the SEM to obtain crystallographic...