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polymer-matrix composites

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... visually or under low magnification are then described. Typical microscopic features observed on structural metals are presented subsequently, followed by a brief discussion on fatigue in polymers and polymer-matrix composites. References References 1. Stephens R. , Fatemi...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., aspect ratio, distribution, orientation, combination with fillers, and the quality of bonding with the matrix), and operating conditions. Fibers are far more wear resistant than the matrix and hence control the wear of composite. Continuous fiber-reinforced composites with a thermoset-polymer matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a few formulations of thermoset composites. The relevant micrograph is given in Fig. 9 . It is seen from these results that the wear resistance of phenolic resin increases by almost two orders of magnitude when fillers such as carbon and aramid fibers are added to the phenolic resin matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Crystalline domains with rigid chains between them and cross-linking chains High-strength and temperature-resistant materials E Rigid-chain domains in a flexible-chain matrix Styrene-butadiene-styrene, triblock polymer Thermoplastic elastomer (a) See Fig. 23 . (b) PE, polyethylene; PP...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or energy-dispersive x-ray analysis in a scanning electron microscope, which are discussed in the section “Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy and Other Microchemical Analysis Procedures.” Polymers Chemical analysis, as is normally done for metals, is not sufficient for the characterizing of polymeric...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a duplex microstructure or that are made up of two or more component phases (e.g., a composite-type material, such as a high-chromium white iron, or a composite drill bit, such as diamond or tungsten carbide inserts in a steel matrix), the individual components of which vary in their mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to 1420 ksi) structure coexists in a relatively soft ferrite or pearlite (HV of approximately 1.0 to 2.9 GPa, or 145 to 420 ksi) matrix. This results in a composite HV for the alloy of between 4.9 and 5.9 GPa (710 and 855 ksi). However, in spite of the relatively high hardness of the composite structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the use of an inert gas sputter ion gun. The ion gun is used to slowly remove material, thus exposing a new surface to be analyzed. By sequentially sputtering and taking XPS data, a compositional depth profile can be generated ( Fig. 6 ). If the chemical matrix of the sample is not severely damaged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., a compositional depth profile can be generated ( Fig. 7 ). If the chemical matrix of the sample is not severely damaged by the sputter ion beam, chemical information may also be obtained as a function of depth. Similar to AES, exact sputter rates are often difficult to determine. Therefore, sputter rates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and was packed with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) lithium grease. Metallurgical structures and chemical compositions of the bearing’s matrix materials were inspected using a microscope and photoelectric direct reading spectrometer. SEM/EDS was used to examine the local morphology and composition of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) is in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances of polymeric and ceramic materials are also included. Fractography of electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in situ ( Ref 9 ). A different subsurface region system develops when a brittle or nondeforming matrix is subjected to repetitive impact ( Ref 8 ). A white layer still forms, but the base material tends to remain undeformed (see Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3 Subsurface regions for (a) ductile and (b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solution in the aluminum, but the other alloys form soft-solid particles in the matrix. These alloys are usually relatively weak and require strong backing. They do not require an overlay for protection from corrosion; however, an overlay is often provided for start-up protection. Typical alloys are 850.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of polymeric materials to form crystalline solids depends in part on the complexity of the pendant side groups of atoms attached to the covalently bonded carbon atom backbone. Crystallinity is also decreased if the polymer is branched. Seldom is crystallinity complete in a polymeric material. Crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and second-phase particles) when the matrix material separates from the particle by interfacial decohesion or when the inclusion or second-phase fractures. The level of extensional growth of the microvoids is dependent on the level of plastic strain the material can undergo prior to fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... (a) Prior to plastic strain. (b) After plastic strain; twisting and kinking are reduced and the polymer chains become oriented in the direction of plastic strain. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 19 Change in behavior of a polymeric material with increasing strain rate and/or decreasing temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is applicable to metallic materials, and only general information regarding creep-related failures of polymeric materials is given. The article also reviews various factors related to creep behavior and associated failures of materials used in high-temperature applications. The complex effects of creep-fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the part that had been in contact with the fluid passing through the component. Several of the crack surfaces were further examined using SEM. The fracture surface exhibited a coarse morphology, as illustrated in Fig. 1 . The reinforcing glass fibers protruded unbounded from the surrounding polymeric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... adequate flow through workload Nonuniform agitation causes temperature gradients within workload and part May not be uniform Rolling on surface is poor guide to agitation Must be measured or modeled Type of quenchant Brine, water, oil, polymer, gas, air Quench rate must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hardening, whereas in the white layer, it is a property of the near-surface material developed in situ ( Ref 12 ). A different subsurface region system develops when a brittle or nondeforming matrix is subjected to repetitive impact ( Ref 12 ). A white layer still forms, but the base material tends...