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polymer processing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is not too coarse Ensure venting is unblocked and sufficient Part not fully formed This could be due to an insufficient amount of material to begin with or insufficient rotation during processing. Complex and detailed parts may also be a challenge for the polymer melt to flow into sharp corners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., shape, and design factors. Finally, the article describes how various processes handle reinforcement. Selected References Selected References • Agassant J.F. , Avenas P. , Sergent J. , and Carreau P.J. , Polymer Processing: Principles and Modeling , Hanser Gardner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... result from the polymerization process, contaminants, or plasticizing additives. Table 6 shows some typical electrical property values for selected plastic materials. Volume resistivity is a measure of the resistance of an insulator to conduction of current. Most neat polymers have a very high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) at various mold temperatures, as measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) Fig. 15 Schematic comparing the processing of (a) thermoplastics with (b) thermosets Fig. 16 Thermoset conversion from liquid resin to rigid polymer during curing process. Adapted from Ref 14...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... General catalytic cycle of a hindered amine light stabilizer Abstract This article describes the processes involved in photochemical aging and weathering of polymeric materials. It explains how solar radiation, especially in the UV range, combines with atmospheric oxygen, driving photooxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of halogenated additives and their applications Key flame retardant Details of flame retardant Application Chlorinated paraffin Chlorine content: 40–60% Dehydrochlorination reaction at T ~ 180 °C (355 °F) (lower thermal stability) Only with lower-temperature-processing polymers such as polyvinyl...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Stereoisomers in a simple vinyl polymer. (a) Atactic (random arrangement of side groups). (b) Isotactic (all side groups on same side). (c) Syndiotactic (regularly alternating side groups). Source: Ref 7 Fig. 3 General steps and the roles of synthesis and analysis in the processes of design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... °C/min (9 °F/min) in flexure. PVC, polyvinyl chloride; LDPE, low-density polyethylene; HDPE, high-density polyethylene; PC, polycarbonate Fig. 18 Tensile stress-strain curves for several types of polymeric materials. Source: Ref 81 Fig. 19 Properties of commercial polymers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in circuit nonperformance at inappropriate times. The low termination strength was attributed to deficient chip design for the intended materials and manufacturing process and exacerbated by the presence of polymeric contamination at the termination interface. Background Circumstances Leading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... A. , Residual Stresses in Injection-Molded Amorphous Polymers , Polym. Eng. Sci. , Vol 27 ( No. 14 ), 1987 , p 1069 10.1002/pen.760271407 33. Siegmann A. , Buchman A. , and Kenig S. , Residual Stresses in Polymers III: The Influence of Injection-Molding Process Conditions , Polym...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for several types of polymeric materials. Source: Ref 28 Fig. 28 Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) properties of commercial polymers. PSU, polysulfone; PPO, polyphenylene oxide; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene; PS-BD, polystyrene-butadiene; PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate; PS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Frequency Sensitivity of Fatigue Processes in Polymeric Solids , Polym. Eng. Sci. , Vol 15 (No. 4 ), 1975 , p 252 – 260 10.1002/pen.760150404 40. Harris J.S. and Ward I.M. , Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Vinyl Urethane Polymers , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 8 (No. 11 ), 1973 , p 1655...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Vol 10 (No. 39 ), 1978 10.1002/pi.4980100108 11. Ueberreiter K. , The Solution Process , Diffusion in Polymers , Crank J. and Park G.S. , Ed., Academic Press , 1968 12. Miller-Chou B.A. and Koenig J.L. , A review of polymer dissolution , Prog...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear. A schematic of the processes involved in the interfacial wear is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Interfacial wear processes. (a) Initial contact of the two surfaces. (b) Running-in process where the soft polymer molecules are gradually transferred to the hard counterface as third-body. (c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., viscous fluid behavior Abstract With any polymeric material, chemical exposure may have one or more different effects. Some chemicals act as plasticizers, changing the polymer from one that is hard, stiff, and brittle to one which is softer, more flexible, and sometimes tougher. Often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Ref 21 Fig. 5 Classification of the processes of friction leading to wear for elastomers. The diagram clarifies the role of friction in determining the wear mechanism for elastomeric polymers. Adapted from Ref 22 Fig. 6 Damage created on the surface of an elastomer by isolated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
....1973.230070101 14. Berry J.P. , Fracture Processes in Polymeric Materials. V. Dependence of the Ultimate Properties of Poly(Methyl Metacrylate) on Molecular Weight , J. Polym. Sci. A: General Papers , Vol 2 (No. 9 ), Sep . 1964 , p 4069 – 4076 10.1002/pol.1964.100020924 15. Andrews...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and the tribometers and instrumentation used to measure the tribological properties of polymers. The article discusses the processes involved in calculating the wear rate of polymers and the methods of characterization of the sliding interface. It provides information on the pressure and velocity limit of polymer...