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polymer printing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and Hiltner over several decades to afford an avenue to tune the optical, dielectric, barrier, and mechanical properties of continuous polymeric films. Two immiscible polymers (A and B) are first conveyed through a single-screw melting element before reaching individually metered feed pumps ( Fig. 19a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Polymer materials are key building blocks of the modern world, commonly used in packaging, automobiles, building materials, electronics, telecommunications, and many other industries. These commercial applications of polymeric materials would not be possible without the use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... AN ENGINEERING PLASTIC is defined as a synthetic polymer with mechanical properties that enable its use in the form of a load-bearing shape. Polymers, which constitute the major portion of an engineering plastic, are made up of extremely large molecules formed from polymerization of different monomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the thermal properties of engineering plastics and elastomers with respect to chemical composition, chain configuration, and base polymer conformation as determined by thermal analysis. It describes the processing of base polymers with or without additives...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) EHD elastohydrodynamic EHL elastohydrodynamic lubriction ELI extra-low interstitial ENSIP Engine Structural Integrity Program EP epoxy polymer EPFM elastic-plastic fracture mechanics EPMA electron probe microanalysis EPR electrochemical potentiokinetic reactiva- tion EPRI Electric Power Research...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to produce images (by SEM or AFM), and the second based on chemical spectroscopy to produce chemical spectrographs (by XPS). The purpose in SEM examination of polymers is either to study the surface topography of a failed part or to study and measure surface features. Atomic force microscopy serves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in addressing polymeric degradation, the technique is also useful in evaluating the failed sample material for chemical contact. Plastic materials can be affected in several ways through contact with chemical agents. Depending on the polymer/chemical combination, solvation, plasticization, additive abstraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymerized to a high molecular weight. They may be amorphous (polystyrene) or semicrystalline (polyethylene or polypropylene) and are processed into useful shapes using a variety of thermal processes. On the other hand, thermosets are a class of polymers that start out as small molecules (monomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can appear as discoloration, crazing, and softening to complete breakdown of the polymeric materials. The most common environments that cause degradation of polymers are ultraviolet radiation, industrial chemicals, humidity, ozone and oxygen, microorganisms, and temperature. A combination of two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the 1980s, when vat polymerization and stereolithography were used in making solid objects by successively “printing” thin layers of a curable material. Another early type of AM technology in the 1990s was the use of ink-jetting technology in developing AM machines to deposit a fine particle stream...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... displacements. The measured surface displacement signals can be post-processed in the same manner as those captured using piezoelectric transducers. Fig. 19 Laser interferometer Other NDI Technologies Several other NDI technologies have applications for polymer materials ( Ref 30 – 41 ). Among...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the failed component. Qualitative analysis is often adequate to make this determination, for example, such as distinguishing between a plain carbon steel and an alloy steel. Certain polymers can also be preliminarily identified by EDS, including chlorinated polymers (polyvinyl chloride) and fluorinated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Parallel to the application of FTIR in addressing polymeric degradation, the technique is also useful in evaluating the failed sample material for chemical contact. Plastic materials can be affected in several ways through contact with chemical agents. Depending on the polymer/chemical combination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the generic features of impact wear on metals, ceramics, and polymers. It describes normal impact wear and compound impact wear, as well as the features of impact wear testing apparatus such as ballistic impact wear apparatus and pivotal hammer impact wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... small area analysis, imaging Ease of use, quantification Chemical and molecular analysis, imaging Limitations Insulator analysis challenging, damaging to organics Very few Quantification difficult Major applications Semiconductors, electronics, metallurgy All industries Polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that of semicrystalline polymers ( Fig. 4 ). This slow change in physical properties is because polymers are viscoelastic materials, unlike metals, which are actual solids. Fig. 4 Glass transition temperature ( T g ) curves for semicrystalline and amorphic polymers Therefore, the thermal limitations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of polymers (see the article “Characterization of Plastics in Failure Analysis” in this Volume). Table 2 is a summary chart of techniques discussed in this article. In this brief review, it is not possible to develop all the capabilities of each technique, but some of the more important attributes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situations, the bodies tend to be large and contact in a well-defined location in a controlled way, unlike erosion where the eroding particles are small and interact randomly with the target surface. This article describes some generic features and modes of impact wear of metals, ceramics, and polymers...