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polymer pressure bars

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... lightweight, having high strength, and being comparatively easier to mass produce in automatic manufacturing processes. Polymeric materials are now not only used in consumable products but are also beginning to be considered for demanding structural applications in which the polymer material may experience...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... responsible for pressure generation and forward conveying of the melt. The pressure generated here forces the polymer melt to flow through the die. Hence, the screw dimensions in the metering zone, along with the die opening dimensions and power law index of the polymer, can be used to estimate the production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... absorbed. Absorbed water can adversely affect polymeric materials through dimensional changes (swelling of the material), surface degradation (color and gloss changes, crazing, blistering, etc.), and plasticization (softening) of the polymer, depressing T g and reducing mechanical and physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... on properties of plastics. It explains the use of high-modulus graphite fibers in amorphous polymers. high-modulus graphite fibers plastics thermal diffusivity thermal expansion thermal stress ENGINEERING PLASTICS, as a general class of materials, are prone to the development of internal stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... D1525 and D1637) in regard to their effective working T g . In these methods, a standard form such as a polymer dog-bone bar is placed under a load by means of a penetration probe (i.e., Vicat test) or some clamping configuration, and the T g is defined as the temperature above which noticeable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... from metals. One of the most important differences between polymers and other materials is the statistical nature of their molecular chains. A distribution of chain lengths is a consequence of the random nature of most polymerization reactions. Thus, polymers are generally characterized by a molecular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (m); P = applied pressure (Pa); L = die length (m) Note that the shear rate and stress parameters were referred to as apparent. The shear rate calculations are valid only for Newtonian fluids. For a non-Newtonian fluid, which most polymer melts are, a Rabinowitsch correction can be made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the positive identification of polymeric materials. The test is conducted simply by transmitting an infrared beam through a small sample, whereby some of the infrared radiation is either absorbed or transmitted. The spectrum resulting from this test acts like a fingerprint which is unique to a specific polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract With any polymeric material, chemical exposure may have one or more different effects. Some chemicals act as plasticizers, changing the polymer from one that is hard, stiff, and brittle to one which is softer, more flexible, and sometimes tougher. Often these chemicals can dissolve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... regions. Crystalline regions result from greater intermolecular forces that lead to tightly knit and organized structures called lamellae ( Fig. 2 ) ( Ref 3 ). These lamellar structures are comprised of polymer molecules that have created organized folding patterns upon cooling. As the polymeric molecules...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of failure analysis. Current ASTM volumes include more than 20 protocols for determining the viscosity of a polymeric solution or melt. From these viscosity measurements, mathematical relationships are used to determine the polymer’s MW. Several categories of test methods are available for making...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to an accumulation of gas under a residence and a serious explosion. Applications The 10-cm (4-in.) nominal diameter pipe had been in service for approximately ten years prior to failure. The pipe was operated as an intermediate pressure line, with a nominal pressure of 0.2 MPa (30 psi). It had been attached...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... AN ENGINEERING PLASTIC is defined as a synthetic polymer with mechanical properties that enable its use in the form of a load-bearing shape. Polymers, which constitute the major portion of an engineering plastic, are made up of extremely large molecules formed from polymerization of different monomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... molded and cut into a standard shape. In practice, injection-molded coupons are usually used. The history of the plastic sample has some influence on tensile properties. A tensile bar prepared by injection molding with a high pressure tends to have greater tensile strength. A material that has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., extension, e , is approximately equal to engineering strain, ε.) Fig. 6 Strain-rate and temperature dependence of yield strength for polybutylene terephthalate All the data shown in Fig. 1 to 6 are the results of tensile tests. Polymers exhibit a hydrostatic pressure dependence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... mechanical fatigue failure polymers thermal fatigue failure FAILURE OF STRUCTURAL polymeric materials under cyclic application of stress or strain is not only a subject of technical interest but one of industrial importance as well. Fracture of components is usually due to initiation and growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymerized to a high molecular weight. They may be amorphous (polystyrene) or semicrystalline (polyethylene or polypropylene) and are processed into useful shapes using a variety of thermal processes. On the other hand, thermosets are a class of polymers that start out as small molecules (monomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the industries that rely on pressure vessels, storage tanks, heat exchangers, piping, compressors, and pumps to produce or refine oil and gas, chemicals, fertilizer, and polymers. One notable fatigue-related failure in Japan of a breech-lock-closure heat exchanger (sometimes referred to as a screw plug heat...