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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Evans D.G. and Lancaster J.K. , The Wear of Polymers , Wear , Vol 13 , Materials Science and Technology , Scott D. , Ed., Academic Press , 1979 , p 85 – 139 12. Davim J.P. and Marques N. , Evaluation of Tribological Behaviour of Polymeric Materials for Hip...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the generic features of impact wear on metals, ceramics, and polymers. It describes normal impact wear and compound impact wear, as well as the features of impact wear testing apparatus such as ballistic impact wear apparatus and pivotal hammer impact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Conclusion and Recommendations References References 1. Williams J.G. , Hodgkinson J.M. , Polym. Eng. Sci. , Vol 21 , 1981 , p 822 . 2. Hertzberg R.W. , Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials , 2nd ed. , John Wiley and Sons , New York , 1983 , p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... austenitic stainless steel near fracture origin in rotating-beam specimen. Global crack propagation direction from lower left to upper right in this scanning electron microscope view Fig. 41 Crystallographic fatigue of 6000-series aluminum extrusion near fracture origin in rotating-beam specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on structural metals are presented subsequently, followed by a brief discussion of fatigue in nonmetals. The article reviews the various macroscopic and microscopic features to characterize the history and growth rate of fatigue in metals. It concludes with a description of fatigue of polymers and composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situations, the bodies tend to be large and contact in a well-defined location in a controlled way, unlike erosion where the eroding particles are small and interact randomly with the target surface. This article describes some generic features and modes of impact wear of metals, ceramics, and polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) is in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances of polymeric and ceramic materials are also included. Fractography of electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... (a) Prior to plastic strain. (b) After plastic strain; twisting and kinking are reduced and the polymer chains become oriented in the direction of plastic strain. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 19 Change in behavior of a polymeric material with increasing strain rate and/or decreasing temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a solid-state transformation. bcc, body-centered cubic; fcc, face-centered cubic; T , instantaneous absolute temperature; T M , absolute melting temperature of the material Fig. 3 Aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extension-ladder side-rail extrusion that failed by plastic deformation and subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or shrinkage), and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in geometric form. Most of the examples in this article deal with metals, but the concepts also apply to nonmetals. Materials as diverse as metals, polymers, and wood are all susceptible to distortion, although the mechanisms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 250 mm, or 10 in., in diameter) were transported by rail to the plant where they were to be extruded as buss bars. Black marks (that is, fretting debris) were noticed on the cylinders ( Fig. 5 ) that gave rise to serious surface tears on extrusion ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 5 Typical fretting marks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... information Finishing characteristics Weldability/joining technologies Suitability for forging, extrusion, and rolling Formability (finished product) Castability Repairability Flammability Joining technology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will be made from metal, plastic, ceramic, or composite. Level II: Determine whether metal parts will be produced by a deformation process (wrought) or a casting process; for plastics, determine whether they will be thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers. Level III: Narrow options to a broad...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to manufacture at normal production rates … Material discontinuities that cause failures in metal products Table 2 Material discontinuities that cause failures in metal products Metal product form Types of discontinuities Forgings Laps Bursts Cracks Flow-through defects Extrusion-type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Ref 61 ), elastic and elastic-plastic fracture ( Ref 62 – 64 ), extrusion ( Ref 65 , 66 ), fatigue ( Ref 67 , 68 ), delamination ( Ref 69 , 70 ), deformation localization ( Ref 52 , 60 , 71 , 72 ), and melting ( Ref 43 , 65 , 71 ). An even greater number of analytical models have been proposed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... adequate flow through workload Nonuniform agitation causes temperature gradients within workload and part May not be uniform Rolling on surface is poor guide to agitation Must be measured or modeled Type of quenchant Brine, water, oil, polymer, gas, air Quench rate must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to a machine, and control the build. A solid model is obtained by computer-aided-design software or 3D object scanners, and the part is additively built, typically layer upon layer, into the precise geometric shapes of the digital model. Polymers were used first in the development of modern AM technology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Ductile cracking by MVC cannot have a herringbone pattern, although a macroscale radial pattern and chevrons can occur from MVC. River lines on a macroscopic scale may be revealed in glassy polymers, but not on a macroscopic scale in a metallic material. With regard to fatigue, materials with poor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... critical shear and normal stress laws was obtained prior to 1935 by macroscale observation ( Ref 3 , 6 ). Slip band extrusions on the surface of smooth single crystals were resolvable and photographed, and they implied evidence of slip deformation. Similarly, when cleavage fracture occurred, the resulting...