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polymer degradation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... It summarizes the main synthetic polymers that are released and available for bacterial and fungal decomposition. The article also presents a detailed discussion on the enzymes that are involved in plastic degradation, and the measurement of polymer degradation. bacterial decomposition biodegradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and addresses related considerations such as melt viscosity and melt strength, crystallization, orientation, die swell, melt fracture, shrinkage, molded-in stress, and polymer degradation. composition elastic modulus engineering plastics polymer properties polymer structure shear rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the polymeric material. The general photochemistry of basic polymers has been studied in detail and is mostly understood ( Ref 1 , 2 ). However, the degradation of technical materials and products in natural environments is a little more complicated. A technical polymer does not consist solely of its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... embrittlement and temperature on polymer performance. brittle fracture degradation environmental stress cracking performance polymers surface embrittlement temperature POLYMERIC MATERIALS are often differentiated according to their short-term and long-term mechanical properties. The category...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... encapsulant polymer degradation hydrolysis epoxy resin softening and flow differential scanning calorimetry with thermogravimetric analysis curing time epoxy resin Introduction Epoxy resin is generally used as encapsulant in electrical industry to protect the products from damage by shock...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... As the cracks grew larger, the weight of the transformer eventually overloaded the brackets, resulting in failure. mounting brackets fracture polymer degradation ABS plastic cracking FTIR TGA Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (thermoplastic) Introduction It was reported that six transformer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... factors. Outdoor degradation factors affect some materials more than others because of their chemical composition. Weather factors act synergistically on polymer degradation. They influence each other and can amplify their destructive effects. For example, elevated temperatures will increase the rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... absorbed. Absorbed water can adversely affect polymeric materials through dimensional changes (swelling of the material), surface degradation (color and gloss changes, crazing, blistering, etc.), and plasticization (softening) of the polymer, depressing T g and reducing mechanical and physical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the random nature of most polymerization reactions. Thus, polymers are generally characterized by a molecular-weight distribution and the associated averages. This is discussed in more detail in the article “Characterization of Plastics in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Deformation and Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) physical effects. Chemical attack occurs when chemical reactions result from the interaction between the environment and polymer molecules. This type of interaction may involve chain scission, the degradation of a polymer main chain, which is an irreversible effect. Crazing and microcracking, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Polymer materials are key building blocks of the modern world, commonly used in packaging, automobiles, building materials, electronics, telecommunications, and many other industries. These commercial applications of polymeric materials would not be possible without the use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... endothermic transition normally associated with PBT after slow cooling. This was thought to be the result of molecular degradation, which produced shorter polymer chain lengths, therefore reducing steric hindrance. A comparison of the second heating thermograms is included in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... from metals. One of the most important differences between polymers and other materials is the statistical nature of their molecular chains. A distribution of chain lengths is a consequence of the random nature of most polymerization reactions. Thus, polymers are generally characterized by a molecular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the surrounding polymeric matrix. The fracture surface also showed a network of secondary cracking. Overall, the observations made during the visual and SEM inspections were consistent with molecular degradation associated with chemical attack of the filter component material. Fig. 1 Scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in addressing polymeric degradation, the technique is also useful in evaluating the failed sample material for chemical contact. Plastic materials can be affected in several ways through contact with chemical agents. Depending on the polymer/chemical combination, solvation, plasticization, additive abstraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... as chemical degradation of the polymer structure. Table 1 lists the water absorption values for selected plastics as determined by ASTM D570 after a 24-hour immersion at 25 °C (77 °F). Generally, the more polar the nature of the plastic, the greater its affinity for water. As Table 1 shows, materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Parallel to the application of FTIR in addressing polymeric degradation, the technique is also useful in evaluating the failed sample material for chemical contact. Plastic materials can be affected in several ways through contact with chemical agents. Depending on the polymer/chemical combination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the hydrostatic design basis approach, Miner's rule, the Arrhenius model, and the Paris Law for fatigue crack propagation, are discussed. accelerated testing Arrhenius model chemical degradation environmental stress cracking fatigue crack propagation Miner's rule Paris law polymeric materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or polymerization temperature, moisture evolution temperature and amount, polymer morphology and the effect of temperature, and the effects of thermal history and processing. Finally, the TGA thermal degradation spectra, with accompanying IR curves, identify the functional chemical groups in the polymer. Using...