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polymer degradation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... encapsulant polymer degradation hydrolysis epoxy resin softening and flow differential scanning calorimetry with thermogravimetric analysis curing time epoxy resin Introduction Experimental Sections Results and Discussion Conclusion References References 1. Naito C. , Todd...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... As the cracks grew larger, the weight of the transformer eventually overloaded the brackets, resulting in failure. mounting brackets fracture polymer degradation ABS plastic cracking FTIR TGA Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (thermoplastic) Introduction Results and Discussion Conclusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 10 , 1975 , p 833 10.1007/BF01163078 10. Schnabel W. , Polymer Degradation , Hanser International , 1981 11. Lochanski Edward C. , Solvent-Induced Cracking Failure of Polycarbonate Ophthalmic Lenses , Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis , Vol 2 , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... to be the result of molecular degradation, which produced shorter polymer chain lengths, therefore reducing steric hindrance. A comparison of the second heating thermograms is included in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 A comparison of the second heating run results, further suggesting degradation of the failed sleeve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... as a result of molecular degradation caused by the service conditions. Specifically, the part material had undergone severe chemical attack, including oxidation and hydrolysis, through contact with silver chloride. The source of the silver chloride was not established, but one potential source...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Polymers for Engineers , Hanser Publishers , 1995 • Portney R.C. , Ed., Medical Plastics: Degradation Resistance and Failure Analysis , Plastic Design Library , 1998 • Smith B.C. , Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy , CRC Press , 1996 • Turi...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... became viscous during this operation. Any polyamide curing agent or uncured resin that had not reacted during the cure cycle for the polymer-base thick-film ink degraded. Thermal expansion forces exerted by the carrier strip on the metallization interface pulled the terminations apart. Because nothing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the mechanical property of the interface zone as opposed to the quasi-adiabatic, which affects only the transfer layer normally present at the true interface. The chemical-wear mechanism is initiated if the frictional heat can chemically affect the polymer surface, resulting in the production of degraded polymer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... strength, impact-resistant, and low-moisture-absorbent polymer, thermal degradation processes can readily compromise any of its apparent advantages, as depolymerization dominates over oxidation. The additional presence of acid at or above the continuous service temperature further accelerates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can appear as discoloration, crazing, and softening to complete breakdown of the polymeric materials. The most common environments that cause degradation of polymers are ultraviolet radiation, industrial chemicals, humidity, ozone and oxygen, microorganisms, and temperature. A combination of two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... superstructure started mainly at the mechanically stressed tooth flanks. In addition, oil vapors, humidity, and other degradative agents could also have contributed to the observed failure. No recommendations were made. Boilers Gear teeth Microporisty Polyoxymethylene (Other, miscellaneous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... steel sleeve. The drying process had exposed the resin to relatively high temperatures, which caused substantial molecular degradation, thus limiting the part's ability to withstand the stresses. The drying temperature was found to be significantly higher than the recommendation for the PET resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... there are differences in the detailed mechanism of crack growth, particularly in terms of crazing and void formation ahead of the crack tip that can occur in polymers. Nevertheless, the classic appearance of beach marks and striations is observed on the fracture surfaces of polymeric materials that have failed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of which all polymers can be classified, are illustrated in Fig. 23 and described with examples in Table 1 . Thermoplastics should, in theory, have no cross linking, but, in practice, small amounts occur as a result of thermal and oxidative degradation or through the processing of the polymeric material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... fracture zone showed features associated with brittle overload, as evidenced by the significant concentration of hackle marks, and exhibited limited ductility in the form of isolated stretched fibrils. Throughout the SEM examination, no signs were found to indicate that post-molding degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) bearings and sliding bearings. This article discusses failures of sliding bearings. A bearing failure lowers efficiency, increases energy loss, degrades performance, and increases environmental pollution. Failure costs are generally high, because it includes machine downtime costs, bearing cost...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and contact surfaces. Chemical and thermal properties of the bearing grease were also examined. The investigation revealed that the failure was caused by wear due to dry friction and impact, both of which worsened as a result of high-temperature degradation of the bearing grease. Fatigue cracks initiated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... found to be introduced during processing of polymers ( Ref 39 ). Both, if present, could act as sites for the initiation of microcracks. For impacts at higher stresses, several critical phenomena have been identified, such as charring and chemical degradation and the existence of a stress threshold...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the two. The plastic material was bonded to the outer ring. Several products of degradation of oil (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and acids), contaminants (such as water), and some antiwear additives in oil cause corrosion. A corrosive environment may selectively attack an alloy, removing only one...