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polyester resin

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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 15 Structure of unsaturated polyester resins. (a) Phthalate esters, (b) Bisphenol A/fumarate resins More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 16 Degradation of glass laminates in water at 100 °C (212 °F) for different polyester-resin matrices. BPA, bisphenol A More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... analyzed using micro-FTIR in the ATR mode. The spectra obtained on both sets of parts contained absorption bands characteristic of a thermoplastic polyester, such as PBT or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Different types of polyester resins cannot be distinguished spectrally, because of the similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a study on the effect of moisture and temperature on the creep of polyester resins. They found that the effect of moisture and temperature on the shift of the data was not independent but rather interactive. Moisture-Induced Fatigue Failure Resistance to fatigue failure is an important criterion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in the ATR mode on a core specimen of the jacket material. The resulting spectrum was consistent with a thermoplastic polyester resin. Such materials, including PET and PBT, cannot be distinguished spectrally, and a melting point determination is usually used to distinguish these materials. The failed jacket...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... in nature. This result indicated that it would be beneficial to examine humidity aged polyester specimens to determine if similar types if resin anomalies were present. Fig. 6 SEM photomicrograph of suspected resin anomaly within the fiber tows in an exterior ply. Humidity aged and non-aged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Engineering plastics all have, as their principal constituent, one or more synthetic polymer resins and almost universally contain additives. Additives, which have much smaller molecules than polymers, provide color, flexibility, rigidity, flame resistance, weathering resistance, and/or processibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and glass transition temperature. It also provides information on polyimide and bismaleimide resin systems. Representative examples of different types of engineering thermoplastics are discussed primarily in terms of structure and thermal properties. chemical composition elastomeric materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... subtraction was performed, thereby removing the absorbances attributed to the ABS resin from the spectrum obtained on the failed part. The spectral subtraction results were consistent with a thermoplastic polyester, such as PET or PBT. However, these two materials cannot be distinguished spectrally, because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... and polyester. No signs of material contamination were found. The housing material was further evaluated using DSC. The thermogram obtained during the initial heating run, as shown in Fig. 2 , exhibited an endothermic transition at 253 °C (487 °F), characteristic of the melting point of a PET resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... resistance values, although such materials would have lower stiffness. Figure 1 shows the variation of notched impact with flexural modulus for a typical range of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resins. Some stiffness can be recovered by adding fibrous reinforcement, but the reinforcement can also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The descriptions of the analytical techniques are supplemented by a series of case studies that include pertinent visual examination results and the corresponding images that aid in the characterization of the failures. The article describes the methods used for determining the molecular weight of a plastic resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... failures can be traced back to the processor simply using the wrong material. If mixing of color, additives, or regrind is required, the processor must make sure that the proper mixing ratio is maintained and that the additives are thoroughly mixed into the virgin resin. Appropriate use of automated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... uorinated ethylene propylene ame ionization detector failure modes and effects analysis exible PVC ber-reinforced polymer (or plastic) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy glass reinforced epoxy resin glass ber glass ber reinforced polymer (or plastic) gel permeation chromatography high-density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., a composite process that has many similarities to extrusion, is selected only when constant sections are required. Pultrusion begins with strands of reinforcement, usually glass or carbon fibers, that have been wetted in a resin tank ( Fig. 17 ). The resin used is most often an epoxy or polyester. The next...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... include phenolic resins, unsaturated polyesters, vinyl esters, polyurethanes, cyanate esters, bismaleimides, addition polyimides, and difunctional acrylates and methacrylates. Thermoset resins are formulated to achieve the desired processing conditions as well as the desired final fully cured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article addresses some established protocols for characterizing thermoplastics and whether they are homogeneous resins, alloyed, or blended compositions or highly modified thermoplastic composites. It begins with a discussion on characterizing mechanical, rheological, and thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polymers can be degraded by at least one mechanism. The most common degradation mechanisms are discussed in the following paragraphs. Hydrolysis Polymers created by stepwise reactions, for example, polyesters and nylons, form water as a reaction product along with the polymer. Under certain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the surface (arrows). Specimen etched with nital Wheels consist of abrasive particles, chiefly alumina or silicon carbide (SiC), and filler in a binder material that may be a resin, rubber, or a mixture of resin and rubber. Alumina is the preferred abrasive for ferrous alloys, and SiC is the preferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... susceptible than others to specific degradation mechanisms, but all polymers can be degraded by at least one mechanism. The most common degradation mechanisms are discussed in this section. Hydrolysis Condensation polymers created by stepwise reactions, for example, polyesters and nylons, often form...