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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to determine the exact nature of the defect. The investigation describes how cross-sectioning, fractography, and chemical analysis were utilized to determine the type of defect responsible for the signal attenuation. Aircraft components Disbonding Laminates Ultrasonic testing Kevlar-polyester (Other...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 10 Detailed ultrasonic C-scan of a 62.5mm section from the kevlar/polyester component. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 11 Cross-section of the kevlar/polyester component at 45 degree angle to the warp and fill fibers. Arrow indicates fiber/matrix disbonds in the exterior ply. More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 15 Structure of unsaturated polyester resins. (a) Phthalate esters, (b) Bisphenol A/fumarate resins More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 3 The effect of moisture on the tensile, elongation, and impact strength of polyester. Adapted from Ref 4 More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 40 Thermomechanical analysis penetration as a function of temperature for a molded polyester gel coat. Source: Ref 45 More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 16 Degradation of glass laminates in water at 100 °C (212 °F) for different polyester-resin matrices. BPA, bisphenol A More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 6 Tensile strength half-life ( t 1/2 ) versus temperature for E-glass/polyester immersed in deionized water More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Activation spectra of unstabilized and stabilized 3200 μm (125 mil) thick polyester specimen using 1000 W xenon arc with borosilicate glass filter. Source: Ref 3 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... While attack by aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis, or oxidants is common, the chemical attack of structural plastics by water is somewhat rare. Exceptions are the hot-water degradation of polycarbonate (PC) and thermosetting polyesters as well as the hygroscopic nature of polyamides (PA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Active Enzymes Since PET is a polyester of repeating units of TPA and ethylene glycol, enzymes that act on PET attack the ester bond and, therefore, are PET esterases (PETases). Upon degradation of PET, TPA, mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET) and bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... analyzed using micro-FTIR in the ATR mode. The spectra obtained on both sets of parts contained absorption bands characteristic of a thermoplastic polyester, such as PBT or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Different types of polyester resins cannot be distinguished spectrally, because of the similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and semicrystalline thermoplastics include: Amorphous: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), acrylic (PMMA), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polyphenylene (PPO) Semicrystalline: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), acetal (POM), polyesters (PET, PBT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... terephthalic acid thermoplastic polyester thermoplastic polyimide turns per inch thermoplastic polyurethane Abbreviations Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics / 703 TTT UBC UHMWPE UL UP UV VA VC VDC VHP time-temperature-transformation Uniform Building Code ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... subtraction was performed, thereby removing the absorbances attributed to the ABS resin from the spectrum obtained on the failed part. The spectral subtraction results were consistent with a thermoplastic polyester, such as PET or PBT. However, these two materials cannot be distinguished spectrally, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-formaldehyde (PF) 163 325 150 300 0.25 0.14 16 Unsaturated polyester (UP) 279 535 130 265 0.12 0.07 16 Modified polyphenylene oxide alloy (PPO mod) 100 212 80 175 … … 38 Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 260 500 200 390 0.17 30 Polysulfone (PSU) 174 345 140 285 0.26 0.15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... such as acetals, polyamides, polyesters, and thioesters are susceptible to hydrolysis, as discussed in the article “ Moisture-Related Failure of Plastics ” in this volume. Polycarbonate (PC) and polyphenylene sulfide are attacked by formic acid and amines. Formic acid can decrease the tensile strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... and polyester. No signs of material contamination were found. The housing material was further evaluated using DSC. The thermogram obtained during the initial heating run, as shown in Fig. 2 , exhibited an endothermic transition at 253 °C (487 °F), characteristic of the melting point of a PET resin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... are not recommended for use with plastics such as polyesters or polyethylenes, which are the materials used to make ball floats. These plastics are attacked by hydrocarbons and deteriorate as penetration proceeds. the plastic loses its ductility, becoming brittle and fragile under load, such as the bending moment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in the ATR mode on a core specimen of the jacket material. The resulting spectrum was consistent with a thermoplastic polyester resin. Such materials, including PET and PBT, cannot be distinguished spectrally, and a melting point determination is usually used to distinguish these materials. The failed jacket...