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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An 1100 aluminum alloy connector of a high-tension aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) transmission cable failed after more than 20 years in service, in a region of consider able industrial pollution. The steel core was spliced with a galvanized 1020 carbon steel sheath. Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... condition existed at the inner elbow because of flow conditions dictated by the fluid dynamics. In conclusion, failure of the heat exchanger tube was by accelerated corrosion due to the presence of sulfides in the seawater. The selection of an alloy more resistant to sulfide polluted seawater would have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... cations in the pollutants). In addition, stressed fuses made of nickel silver and of cupro-nickel (80Cu-20Ni) were exposed to 1 drop of corrosive solution at the stressed area. All specimens were exposed for 42 days in a container in which the relative humidity was maintained at 76%. Fig. 1 Nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... wall. These differences were attributed to differences in the pitting mechanism for the two alloys. Alloy Cu-10%Ni (UNS C70600) is used extensively for condenser tubing in seawater applications, because it offers good corrosion resistance at reasonable cost. In polluted, brackish waters, however...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of Electrical Insulating Materials (<xref rid="a0006913-ref11" ref-type="bibr">Ref 11</xref>) This test is intended for insulating materials that, when exposed to high humidity and polluted conditions, may fail in service because of tracking or erosion, or both. This test is especially useful for organic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... be able to withstand the severe environment to which they are subjected. This environment includes corrosive conditions from road salt and acid-forming air pollutants. In the last several years, the truck industry has upgraded the strength level of wheel studs from SAE Grade 5 to SAE Grade 8, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... strength. Also, because the correct performance of the cylinder head influences the performance parameters of engines such as power, torque, and fuel consumption and has a direct effect on environmental pollution, the design of this component according to fatigue loadings and lifetime has a high importance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... stability, flexibility, low production cost, for and others, have resulted in the frequent use of plastics in our economies. However, the over seven decade–long global use at a multimillion-ton scale and a lack of a commensurate level of recycling have resulted in global pollution. Meanwhile, this pollution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at the right position One or more (non)contacting sliding surfaces, also called sealing lips, attached to or vulcanized on the armature to maintain the lubricant within the REB and avoid pollution of the REB by foreign particles Fig. 9 (a) Main structure of sealing lips used in rolling-element...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... corrosion of superalloys by sulfates, but in the present case, chromium might contaminate the product and would pose concerns about environmental pollution. The most common approach to solving hot corrosion is to identify a better alloy through the appropriate corrosion testing of a wide variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... discussed above in detail. These includes dirt and dust impact, ozone, salt and other corrosive electrolytes, pollution, and acid rain. These secondary factors can work synergistically with the primary weathering factors to produce unique types of degradation. Weathering Test Methods In this section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to this description. A considerable pollution problem has existed in the past but is now pretty well corrected. In any case, the bridge in its early days was exposed to the presence of salt water in its vicinity. Currently, although the water is fresh, the distance to the Boston harbor is rather small so...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... oil are typically used, and all of these fuels can contain sulfur, sodium, potassium, vanadium, lead, and molybdenum as contaminants. The airborne pollutants entering with the inlet air depend on the turbine location, but include sodium, sulfur, chlorine, and calcium. These impurities in the fuel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that can affect organic materials such as polymers are solar radiation, heat, and water in the form of relative humidity or as liquid. These so-called primary weathering factors lead to the degradation of polymers, especially in the presence of oxygen. Secondary factors, such as atmospheric pollutants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... continuous welding to seal out the external environment. Source: Ref 5 Conditions that cause serious corrosion problems include airborne contamination, dust, pollution, acid rain, and proximity to a seacoast. Designing to avoid retention of such contaminants is critical. Thus, design specifications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and sliding bearings. This article discusses failures of sliding bearings. A bearing failure lowers efficiency, increases energy loss, degrades performance, and increases environmental pollution. Failure costs are generally high, because it includes machine downtime costs, bearing cost, and disassembly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... around the site for later analysis. Natural chemicals present in soil, cleaning and maintenance supplies, deicing salts, industrial pollutants, agricultural chemicals, and animal waste residues have all been found to contribute to environmental failures. A supply of clear plastic bottles, plastic bags...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and the qualified labs/personnel to implement the procedures. Other materials may need to be collected around the site for later analysis. Natural chemicals present in soil, cleaning and maintenance supplies, deicing salts, industrial pollutants, agricultural chemicals, and animal waste residues have all been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1