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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract A broken cross-recessed die was examined. Examination of the unetched, polished section for impurities revealed several coarse streaks of slag. The purity did not therefore correspond to the requirements set for a high speed tool steel of the given theoretical quality DMo 5. After...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract The fractured end of a piston rod of a hydraulic press failed in line with the leading face of the piston retaining nut. Although the nut apparently had been seated uniformly, the face was polished, indicating that relative movement between it and the piston had taken place. Failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... during melting. Microscopic examination of polished, etched section through the fractured surface verified intergranular separation and breakdown of grain facets. The absence of any reduction of thickness on the bracket assembly at the point of fracture, along with evidence of intense heat at this point...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A T-piece from a copper hot water system failed. Microscopic examination of a polished section revealed a main crack and branching transcrystalline cracks running from the outer surface of the pipe into the pipe wall. The crack appearance indicated disintegration by stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Fretting and fretting corrosion at the contact area between the screw hole of a type 316LR stainless steel bone plate and the corresponding screw head was studied. The attack on the 316LR stainless steel was only shallow. Mechanical grinding and polishing structures were exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Fig. 1 Schematic showing where failure occurred in superheated steam transfer line. Fig. 2 Specimen cut from the bend very close to the main crack, illustrating creep damage in the form of aligned damage center, shown as voids, with linking microcracks. Repeated polishing procedures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was covered with fine branching cracks and was flaking off. Microscopic examination showed that the unetched polished material had disintegrated to an average depth of 1 mm below the surface. A micrograph of the etched surface revealed numerous deformation lines and transgranular cracking. The failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... such as electrolytic and hand polishing and the vibration method resulted in poor edge and crack edge definition due to material thickness. Etching experiments involved a grain surface attack and hence produced a rather strong surface relief from which the grain boundary cracks could again not clearly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0092155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... (0.020 in.) and a minimum surface hardness equivalent to 58 HRC. Investigation (visual inspection, low-magnification images, 500X images of polished sections etched in 2% nital, spectrographic analysis, and hardness testing) supported the conclusion that the failure occurred by crushing, or cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... The shaft was subjected to reverse torsional loading by the operation of the derrick and the shaft fatigue fracture was caused by this. The fillets at the roots of the spline teeth were increased in size and polished to minimize stress concentrations in these areas. Cracks Derricks Magnetic particle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... out of the pitted areas. Alternatively polishing and etching micro-sections for viewing at high magnification made crack detail more visible. Optical and scanning electron micrographs showed cracking in austenitic cast steel and cast iron due to both internal tensile and critical residual stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...). The corrosion occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A wall section of a carbon steel choke body in gas service at 4400 psig blew out three months after the use of a corrosion inhibitor was stopped. Corrosion damage occurred in ripples, leaving both smoothly polished and unattacked areas. The corrodent in condensate wells...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... or slightly contoured surfaces which are intended to look uniform. The laked areas have to be removed by polishing before the castings can be plated. This adds considerably to the overall cost of production. Castings examined were of an automobile name-plate holder with two flat sides of approximately 113 sq...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., but the two large segments did show evidence of bending (yielding) near the fractures. In addition, some segments contained fine radial cracks. Analysis (visual inspection, optical microscopy on polished-and-etched specimens, hardness testing, and chemical analysis) supported the conclusion that the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...). The liquor was calcium bisulfite, and chloride content was reported to be low. Investigation (visual inspection, and micrographs of sections with electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH and then again after re-polishing and etching with Murakami's reagent) supported the conclusions that the casting never...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... shown in Fig. 16. (a) Typical graphite distribution in the casting—type A, size 4 graphite. As-polished. 54x. (b) The matrix microstructure consists of ferrite with approximately 10% pearlite and 15% steadite. Etched with nital. 54x. (c) Higher magnification view of (b). Etched with nital. 215x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the boiler was polished and etched with Fry-solution, which revealed parallel striations formed due to the cold bending of the plate. The zones of slip were concentrated around the rivet holes. The cracks were formed here. The structure examination proved that the cracks had taken an exactly intercrystalline...