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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... (EIS) to determine the polarization resistance. In EIS, a small-amplitude AC signal is applied between the sample and a counter-electrode within the test cell. This signal is applied over a series of frequencies, and the resulting impedance of the sample provides a measure of its polarization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... polarization and linear polarization techniques. A standard three electrode cell was used with the steel as the working electrode, a saturated calomel electrode as the reference electrode, and a platinum electrode as the auxiliary electrode. A PAR 175 universal programmer, PAR 173 potentiostat with model 376...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) interfaced to the test solution via a salt bridge. A potentiostat system was utilized to perform and analyze the potentiodynamic polarization curves. NACE TM0177 test solution “A” was used in electrochemical tests. After pouring the solution and sealing the cell, the cell...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... determine what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion.” Galvanic corrosion applies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... heat exchanger tubes taken out of service at a gas turbine power station. The corrosive effect of each type of bacteria on mild steel was investigated using electrochemical (polarization and impedance) techniques, and the biogenic calcium scale formations analyzed by XRD. It was shown that the bacteria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion,” in this article. Galvanic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and Testing, 17th ed. , Part II, ( 1995 ). 13. ASTM C 642-90, “Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete,” 14. ASTM C 876-87, “Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete,” 15. Flis J. , Sabol S...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, etc.) for cell renewal and growth. An understanding of these factors can sometimes help in failure investigations. Energy may be derived from sunlight through photosynthesis or from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthetic metabolism is limited in the context...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in soils along a buried pipeline Factor Range Correlation coefficient Number of acid-producing bacteria (a) , cells/g soil 10 3 –10 8 +0.829 Total organic carbon in groundwater, % 0.05–1.2 +0.645 Soil resistivity, Ω · cm 500–30,000 −0.642...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of graphite in grease (Lox-Safe) was applied at the stainless-aluminum interface, there were no failures after 1,000-hr exposure — again consistent with the observations made at Cape Kennedy. The grease was an insulator between the dissimilar metal couples, and it eliminated the galvanic cell reaction. Even...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in an aqueous environment will naturally form a biofilm on most surfaces. When the biofilm is formed, organic decomposition can occur. The by-products of organic decomposition and/or growth can initiate corrosion. Additionally, the biofilm can cultivate an electrochemical corrosion cell that can lead...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the corrosion rate of a metal by polarizing it into its passive region, where dissolution rates are low. Design changes involving components, processes, or systems may be necessary to alleviate corrosion. Poor designs can cause materials highly resistant to uniform corrosion attack to fail catastrophically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Anodic protection is defined as a technique to reduce the corrosion rate of a metal by polarizing it into its passive region, where dissolution rates are low. Cathodic protection systems require an anode, a cathode, a continuous electrical circuit between the cathode and the anode, and the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... phases in a microstructure of steel grinding media as well as between sulfide minerals and these two phases ( Ref 31 ). In the study of high-carbon low-alloy steel grinding media, localized electrochemical cells existed between strained and unstrained regions of the alloy ( Ref 27 ). This resulted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., as well as in multi-matrix applications. Following the spectrometer reading, mechanical compression tests were completed using an Instron 5882 electromechanical testing machine equipped with a 5-kN load cell. The samples were cut from the hosels and sanded to remove any adhesive, then finished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., grade 2) etched with modified Weck’s reagent and viewed with polarized light plus sensitive tint. The arrow along the top edge points to a surface layer containing mechanical twins. As with abrasive-wheel sectioning, all grinding steps should be performed wet using water, provided that water has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... requirements for implants. These two properties are generally related because the less substance the metal surface releases, the better the material is accepted by the tissue. Experimentation has proven that the different pure metals of the periodic table exhibit cell toxicity at different concentrations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... theories. Electrochemical Theory According to the electrochemical theory, galvanic cells are set up between regions of exposed metal surfaces (e.g., metal grains and heterogeneous phases), and anodic paths are thus established. For example, the precipitation of CuAl 2 from an Al-4Cu alloy along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... 15 Twist compression test setup. Source: Ref 101 Fig. 16 Slider-on-flat-surface testing rig. (a) Overview. (b) Tool holder with load cells and actuator (A, normal load; B, friction force; C, load actuator). (c) Testing progression. Adapted from Ref 52 Fig. 18 Load-scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... to the rotor with the largest polar moment of inertia.” A building recently constructed at a university had objectionable levels of both sound and vibration. Both problems were related to the three pulse furnaces used to heat the building. The furnaces were located in the basement, and the flues ran under...