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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 20 ton polar crane motor fell during a 3400 kg (7500 lb) lift, narrowly missing personnel working beneath the crane. Witnesses reported that the motor fall was preceded by a falling oil mass, and it was believed that the motor was intact prior to impact. The maintenance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... heat exchanger tubes taken out of service at a gas turbine power station. The corrosive effect of each type of bacteria on mild steel was investigated using electrochemical (polarization and impedance) techniques, and the biogenic calcium scale formations analyzed by XRD. It was shown that the bacteria...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... both combustion products from the cartridges and corrosion products from the chamber, were analyzed using elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical polarization techniques were also utilized to estimate corrosion rates. Aerospace engines Aircraft components Breech...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... be differentiated. The sections were therefore examined unetched in polarized light. The microstructure of the cracked tubes was shown to have much smaller grains than the ductile and showed cracks from the surface down along the grain boundaries. Material hardness also differed between the unusable tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cleaning Storage tanks 1006 UNS G10060 Uniform corrosion Metalworking-related failures Introduction Failure of Welded Steel Vessels Analysis of the Tank Laboratory Testing Electrochemical Impedance Cyclic Polarization Selected References Selected References • Freeman...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the proximity of the metals or their relative potential or size. Factors Affecting Galvanic Corrosion The intensity of galvanic corrosion is affected by the following factors: The potential difference between the metals or alloys The nature of the environment The polarization behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... The intensity of galvanic corrosion is affected by such factors as: The potential difference between the metals or alloys The nature of the environment/the electrical conductivity of the solution where the dissimilar metals are in contact The polarization behavior of the metals or alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and analyze the potentiodynamic polarization curves. NACE TM0177 test solution “A” was used in electrochemical tests. After pouring the solution and sealing the cell, the cell was deaerated by argon for 1 h to eliminate any oxygen interference with the electrochemical reaction. After purging, H2S was bubbled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... was cut 5.6 m (18.5 ft) shy of abutment No. 1. Once at ALRC, the 14.4 m (47 ft) beam was cut approximately in half and three 0.3 m (1 ft) slices were cut from the center of the beam for cathodic polarization experiments and chloride migration studies that will be the subject of a future report. Steel H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... microscopic examination of microsections, a coarse-meshed net of fine precipitates was found ( Fig. 7 ). They were in part transparent and were illuminated four times while turning 360° in polarized light between crossed Nicols. Thus they were anisotropic, i.e. not glassy or of cubic structure ( Fig. 8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... will reduce the E value to a much lower active value. This same effect was seen in anodic polarization diagrams obtained for the tank material in water containing three different chloride levels ( Fig. 6 ). Demineralized water does not indicate a similar breakdown potential ( E pp ). Service water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... to passivate, polarize, and keep clean, making it the most resistant to activation. If a crevice is present, it will produce a relatively long active site. The area under rubber or in a tight joint is easily activated by Cl ion attack. The absence of sufficient oxidizers does not allow the passive film...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... interstices. Additionally, polarized lighting revealed that the anomalous areas were of a different density than the surrounding resin. Chemical methods were utilized to analyze the anomaly. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was conducted on resin obtained from the top ply and resin obtained from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polarize the anode, stifle the rate of metal oxidation, and limit the overall rate of corrosion by anodic polarization. Similarly, a buildup of primary cathodic reaction products, X n / m − , can slow the overall process through cathodic polarization. A common example of this occurs under anaerobic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... methods for electrochemical testing are published in Ref 2 . As the name suggests, in the controlled-current test method, the current is controlled and the resulting corrosion potential is measured. Polarization curves are generated. Galvanostatic and galvanodynamic polarization measurements are used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the magnetic field strength, reversing the field polarity, and repeating until the part is demagnetized. A substantially greater demagnetization force should be used at the start of the process, and the polarity should be reversed approximately once per second. Demagnetization may be verified with a field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... effect of very small amounts of copper sulfate on the passivity of type 316 stainless steel had been recognized and studied in the laboratory. At the time of manufacture, the literature indicated that type 316L was resistant to 0.1% sulfuric acid at 80°C (175°F), based on Ref 1 . Polarization had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... failed by intergranular SCC caused by nitrates. A nitrogen-containing compound, probably riitric acid, diffused through the Teflon liner and accumulated in the annular space between the liner and the pipe. Teflon is a semicrystalline polymer (polytetrafluoroethylene, or PTFE). Permeation of polar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... precipitates in the ferritic zones around the cracks ( Fig. 7 ) are vitreous silicates, based on their behavior in polarized light. This form of selective oxidation is favored by the scarcity of oxygen in narrow cracks. In the extensions of the cracks, ferritic bands are often recognizable (see Fig. 5...